On the Role of Osteoprotegerin/RANK/RANKL System in the Interaction between Prostate Cancer and Bone
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Metastases to bone are observed in around 80% of prostate cancer patients and represent the most critical complication of advanced prostate cancer. Unlike other solid tumors that are associated with osteolytic bone metastases, prostate cancer bone metastases stimulate osteoblastic activity with sclerosis in the bone lesions as a consequence. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is part of a system with three proteins that play a key role in bone remodeling; namely OPG, RANK and RANKL. RANKL regulates osteoclast activity by binding to RANK on the osteoclasts surface, and this interaction is interrupted by OPG. OPG also plays a role in the lifecycle of tumor cells by blocking TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) making it possible for them to evade cell death. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the interaction between the OPG/RANK/RANKL system and prostate cancer.
Data showed that there was production of OPG from prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. This expression was under the influence of cytokines that are present in the microenvironment of bone. Further, there was documented a previously unnoticed cell surface expression of RANKL. Co-culturing the prostate cancer with human osteoblasts increased the expression of RANKL.
To connect these findings with in vivo studies, OPG-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were investigated. To evaluate OPG SNPs association with bone, a cohort of elderly men was used. OPG SNPs was shown to be correlated to bone mineral density at hip and spine. There was also an association to fragility fractures. Then there was examined the association of the same SNPs to the incidence of prostate cancer but after a four-year follow-up there was no association to the genetic variants.
To summarize this research, we hereby present data that the OPG/RANK/RANKL system might be relevant for prostate cancer growth in bone, and for the skeletal related morbidity in this disease. Future in vitro and in vivo studies will demonstrate the relative importance of this crosstalk, and whether pharmacological interference with the system might be used as a therapeutic tool aiming to decrease skeletal morbidity and possibly also prolong survival in prostate cancer.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 53 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 723
metastases, bone, prostate cancer, osteoprotegerin, RANKL, osteoporosis, genetics, polymorphisms
Research subject Orthopaedics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160751ISBN: 978-91-554-8215-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-160751DiVA: diva2:452639
2011-12-09, Rosénsalen, Ingång 95/96, nbv, Barnsjukhuset, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Lundberg, Pernilla, Docent
Ljunggren, Östen, ProfessorNilsson, Olof, ProfessorKindmark, Andreas, Docent
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