Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in Swedish indoor microenvironments: Implications for human exposure
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs, specifically perfluoroalkane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)). They are used in consumer products found in cars, offices, homes and day care centers. Diet was earlier thought to be a major human exposure route for legacy POPs, but does not account for body burdens found for many new POPs and indoor exposure from air and dust has been hypothesized as also important.
In this thesis, BFRs in air and dust, and PFAAs in dust from different indoor microenvironments in Sweden were analysed, and the results used to estimate human exposure. BFRs and PFAAs were detected in dust from all microenvironments and PBDEs in all air samples. BFR and PFAA exposure occurs mostly in peoples’ homes with toddlers having higher intakes from dust ingestion than adults. Inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles compared to diet for humans with median exposures, but in worst case scenarios, dust ingestion may be significant for a small part of the Swedish population. Sampling using home vacuum cleaner bag dust and researcher-collected above floor dust was compared. Correlations were seen for ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE but not for ∑PentaBDE and HBCD. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in above floor dust but higher HBCD concentrations were found in vacuum cleaner bag dust. BDE-47 concentrations were correlated between vacuum cleaner bag dust and breast milk, indicating exposure through dust ingestion.
Similar concentrations of PBDEs were measured in indoor and outgoing air from day care centers, apartment and office buildings. Indoor air explained 54-92% of ∑PentaBDE and 24-86% of BDE-209 total emissions to outdoor air in Sweden, supporting the hypothesis that the indoor environment is polluting ambient air via ventilation systems.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2011. , 49 p.
PBDEs, HBCD, PFOS, PFOA, indoor air, indoor dust, breast milk, human exposure, emission
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63701ISBN: 978-91-7447-393-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-63701DiVA: diva2:451881
2011-12-09, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Webster, Thomas, Associate Professor
de Wit, Cynthia, Profesor
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.2011-11-172011-10-272013-04-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers