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Residential Mobility and Neighbourhood Effects: A Holistic Approach
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The number of studies estimating neighbourhood effects has increased rapidly during the last two decades. Although results from these studies vary, a majority find at least small effects. But to what extent can we trust these estimates? Neighbourhood effect studies face many serious methodological challenges, of which some are related to the fact that people move. The mobility of individuals may cause neighbourhoods to change over time, result in exposure times that are too short and seriously bias estimates. These methodological problems have not been given enough attention in the neighbourhood effect literature: no study controls for them all, and implications of mobility are rarely included in theoretical discussions of neighbourhood effects.

In a comprehensive summary and five different papers, I argue that the two scholarly fields of residential mobility and neighbourhood effect studies are intrinsically connected and that any arbitrary separation between the two is both conceptually problematic and risks leading to erroneous conclusions. Studies of neighbourhood effects must address the problems caused by mobility, before it can be convincingly argued that results actually show neighbourhood effects. To do this, longitudinal data are necessary. Furthermore, the connection between the two fields may also have implications for studies of residential mobility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , i-vii, 52 p.
Series
Geografiska regionstudier, ISSN 0431-2023 ; 88
Keyword [en]
neighbourhood effect, residential mobility, selection, method, bias
National Category
Social Sciences Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160428ISBN: 978-91-506-2246-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-160428DiVA: diva2:451315
Public defence
2011-12-09, Universitetshuset, sal IV, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-18 Created: 2011-10-24 Last updated: 2016-04-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects
2011 (English)In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 26, no 4, 501-519 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neighbourhoods and cities are dynamic; their characteristics and relative positions change over time due to constant moves in and out. However, neighbourhood effect theory and most attempts to quantitatively estimate neighbourhood effects seem to treat neighbourhoods as if they were static. This paper argues that such a view is not only strange but may also result in biased estimates. Four methodological challenges are highlighted that are directly related to mobility: (1) measures of exposure time; (2) neighbourhood change; (3) selection bias; and (4) endogeneity. These are all topics worthy of scholarly interest in themselves, but also challenges that all neighbourhood effect studies must address to convincingly argue that their results are indicative of causal relationships-results of neighbourhood transmission mechanisms-and not just statistical correlations. The paper discusses how and to what extent these challenges have been met by the quantitative neighbourhood effect literature and gives directions to future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]   Copyright of Housing Studies is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2011
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159183 (URN)10.1080/02673037.2011.559753 (DOI)000290684600002 ()
Available from: 2011-09-23 Created: 2011-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Understanding neighbourhood effects: selection bias and residential mobility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding neighbourhood effects: selection bias and residential mobility
2011 (English)In: Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives / [ed] Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan, Dordrecht ;: Springer, 2011, 79-100 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht ;: Springer, 2011
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165132 (URN)94-007-2308-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-03 Last updated: 2016-04-22Bibliographically approved
3. Neighbourhood choice and neighbourhood reproduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neighbourhood choice and neighbourhood reproduction
2011 (English)In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 43, no 6, 1381-1399 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although we know a lot about why households choose certain dwellings, we know relatively little about the mechanisms behind their choice of neighbourhood. Most studies of neighbourhood choice focus only on one or two dimensions of neighbourhoods: typically poverty and ethnicity. In this paper we argue that neighbourhoods have multiple dimensions and that models of neighbourhood choice should take these dimensions into account. We propose the use of a conditional logit model. From this approach we can gain insight into the interaction between individual and neighbourhood characteristics which lead to the choice of a particular neighbourhood over alternative destinations. We use Swedish register data to model neighbourhood choice for all households which moved in the city of Uppsala between 1997 and 2006. Our results show that neighbourhood sorting is a highly structured process where households are very likely to choose neighbourhoods where the neighbourhood population matches their own characteristics. We find that income is the most important driver of the sorting process, although ethnicity and other demographic and socioeconomic characteristics play important roles as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pion, 2011
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159186 (URN)10.1068/a43453 (DOI)000293770100010 ()
Available from: 2011-09-23 Created: 2011-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Moving Near Family?: The Influence of Extended Family on Neighbourhood Choice in an Intra-urban Context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moving Near Family?: The Influence of Extended Family on Neighbourhood Choice in an Intra-urban Context
2013 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 19, no 1, 32-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social ties are among the most important factors explaining destination choices on the international or national scale but much less is known about their role in short-distance mobility. In this paper, I analyse how the presence of extended family in a neighbourhood affects destination choices on a local housing market the city of Uppsala, Sweden. I employ a probit model to investigate who is more likely to move to neighbourhoods where extended family members reside, followed by a conditional logit model that tests the importance of the presence of family in relation to other neighbourhood characteristics. Results show that the presence of family is indeed a strong determinant for neighbourhood choice and that non-Western immigrants, middle-aged adults, individuals with low socio-economic status, and individuals who have previously resided in the neighbourhood are most likely to move near family.

Keyword
family, social networks, residential mobility, neighbourhood choice, conditional logit
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189120 (URN)10.1002/psp.1703 (DOI)000311406500004 ()
Available from: 2012-12-25 Created: 2012-12-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Neighbourhood Income Sorting and the Effects of Neighbourhood Income Mix on Income: A Holistic Empirical Exploration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neighbourhood Income Sorting and the Effects of Neighbourhood Income Mix on Income: A Holistic Empirical Exploration
2013 (English)In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 50, no 1, 107-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An econometric model is specified in which an individual’s income and the income mix of the neighbourhood in which the individual resides are endogenous, thus providing a holistic model of phenomena that previously have been fragmented into neighbourhood effects and neighbourhood selection literatures. To overcome the biases from selection and endogeneity, the parameters of this model are estimated using instrumental variables in a fixed-effect panel analysis employing annual data on 90 438 working-age males in Stockholm over the 1995–2006 period. Evidence is found of both neighbourhood effects and neighbourhood selection, but more importantly, it is found that the magnitudes of these effects are substantially altered when taking selection and endogeneity biases into account, compared with when only controlling for selection. When taking endogeneity into account, the apparent impact of neighbourhood income mix on individual income is magnified and the effect of individual income on the percentage of high income in the neighbourhood is magnified.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181572 (URN)10.1177/0042098012452320 (DOI)000312548000008 ()
Available from: 2012-09-26 Created: 2012-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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