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Timber/Glass Adhesive Bonds for Structural Applications
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Timber with its natural appearance and glass with its transparency may be appealing material for architects and users of modern buildings. Glass is a brittle material, but it is about six times stiffer than timber. Combined appropriately, the materials could form different types of composite products, e.g. beams or shear walls, that can be included in the load-carrying structure of buildings. e knowledge on load- carrying timber/glass components is limited. e intention of this research has been to contribute to the knowledge required for the industry to be willing to produce timber/glass components for the market.

The thesis includes experimental testing accompanied with complementary nite element simulations, which provide more details and information about the test results. Tests were performed on small-scale specimens with a bond area of 800 mm2 as well as on I-beam and shear wall prototypes. For the small-scale specimens tested in standard climate, three different adhesives were used for the bond line between timber and glass. ese specimens were tested in both tension and shear. In addition, one of the adhesives was used for small-scale shear specimens which were exposed to different humidity levels before the tests were performed. e 4 m long I-beam prototypes designed with a web of glass and wooden anges were tested in four- point bending. e shear wall prototypes were tested by applying either a vertical load, a horizontal load or a combination of these, all being applied in the plane of the shear wall.

Of the three adhesives used in the small-scale testing, an acrylate adhesive had the largest strength, both in tension and in shear. e study on the effect of humidity was performed with this adhesive. is study indicates that the adhesive properties do not change dramatically in indoor climate. is adhesive was also used for twelve of the fourteen tested I-beams. e results from the beams show that a signi cant redundancy is obtained; the load at the nal failure was around 240 % of the load when the rst crack in the glass web appeared. e shear walls were glued using the acrylate adhesive and for a few cases a 2-component silicone based adhesive. e results from the shear wall tests showed the shear wall to behave in a much more brittle manner, without any noticeable redundancy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik, Linnéuniversitetet , 2011.
Series
Rapporter: Institutionen för teknik, Linnéuniversitetet, 10
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-14956Libris ID: 12333835OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-14956DiVA: diva2:447937
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-13 Last updated: 2017-09-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Timber/Glass adhesively bonded I-beams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timber/Glass adhesively bonded I-beams
2011 (English)In: Glass Performance Days, Conference Proceedings, 2011, 2011, 451-456 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Timber and glass are materials with aesthetically pleasing properties. If the materials can be combined appropriately, drawbacks can be overcome and the beneficial mechanical properties utilised and timber/glass elements can be a natural part of the load-carrying structure of buildings. Since glass is a brittle material, an important task for the timber is to provide redundancy – a glass failure should not lead to a catastrophic failure of the entire structural element.

This paper presents results from ongoing research related to load-bearing components made of timber and glass. Results from tests on small timber/glass bond-line specimens, recently submitted for publication, are briefly presented. The core of the paper is, however, a study of fourpoint bending tests on twelve timber/glass I-beams with acrylate adhesive. These I-beams had a nominal height of 240 mm and were designed with a web of 10 mm float glass and flanges of LVL (laminated veneer lumber), bonded together with an acrylate adhesive.

The mean values of the beams imply that the ultimate load capacity is 240 % of the load when the fi rst crack in the glass appeared. Thus, the timber well fulfils the redundancy task of avoiding a catastrophic failure of the structural element.

Keyword
Redundancy, Timber, Glass, Adhesives, I-beams
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-14242 (URN)
Available from: 2011-09-16 Created: 2011-09-16 Last updated: 2015-09-28Bibliographically approved
2. Adhesive joints for timber/glass applications: Part 1: Mechanichal properties in shear and tension.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive joints for timber/glass applications: Part 1: Mechanichal properties in shear and tension.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-15017 (URN)
Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2011-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. Adhesive joints for timber/glass applications: Part 2: Test evaluation based on FE-analyses and contact free deformation measurements.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive joints for timber/glass applications: Part 2: Test evaluation based on FE-analyses and contact free deformation measurements.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-15018 (URN)
Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2011-10-18Bibliographically approved

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