Nanostructured Tungsten Materials by Chemical Methods
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Tungsten based-materials are used in many different technical fields, particularly in applications requiring good temperature and/or erosion resistance. Nanostructuring of tungsten alloys and composites has the potential to dramatically improve the materials’ properties, enhancing the performance in present applications or enabling totally new possibilities. Nanostructured WC-Co composites have been the focus of researchers and industries for over two decades. New methods for powder fabrication and powder consolidation have been developed. However, the fabrication of true nanograined WC-Co materials is still a challenge. Nanostructured tungsten composites for applications as plasma facing materials in fusion reactors have in recent years attracted a growing interest. This Thesis summarizes work on the development of chemical methods for the fabrication of two different types of nanostructured tungsten based materials; WC-Co materials mainly aimed at cutting tools applications and W-ODS composites with rare earth oxide particles, intended as plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors. The approach has been to prepare powders in two steps: a) synthesis of uniform powder precursors containing ions of tungsten and the doping elements by co-precipitation from aqueous solutions, and b) further processing of the precursors into W or WC based nano-composite powders.
Highly homogenous W and Co containing powder precursors for WC-Co composites were prepared via two different routes. Keggin-based precursors ((NH4)8[H2Co2W11O40]) with agglomerates of sizes up to 50 μm, were made from sodium tungstate or ammonium metatungstate and cobalt acetate. The powder composition corresponded to 5.2 % Co in the final WC-Co composites. In a second approach, paratungstate-based precursors (Cox(NH4)10-2x[H2W12O42]) were prepared from ammonium paratungstate (APT) and cobalt hydroxide with different compositions corresponding to 3.7 to 9.7 % Co in WC-Co. These particles had a plate-like morphology with sides of 5-20 μm and a thickness of less than 1 μm. Both precursors were processed and sintered into highly uniform microstructures with fine scale (<1μm). The processing of paratungstate-based precursors was also further investigated. Nanostructured WC-Co powders with grains size of less than 50 nm by decreasing processing temperatures and by applying gas phase carburization.
W-ODS materials were fabricated starting from ammonium paratungstate and rare earth elements (Y or La). Paratungstate-based precursors were prepared with different homogeneity and particle sizes. The degree of the chemical uniformity varied with the particle size from ca 1 to 30 μm. Tungsten trioxide hydrate-based precursors made from APT and yttrium nitrate under acidic conditions had dramatically higher homogeneity and smaller particle size. The crystallite size was decreased to a few nanometers. These precursors were further processed to composite nanopowder and sintered to a nanostructured W-1.2%Y2O3 composite with 88% relative density.
In summary, APT can be converted to highly homogenous powder precursors of different compositions. The transformations are carried out in aqueous suspensions as a solvent mediated process, in which the starting material dissolves and the precursor precipitates. Powders with fine scale morphologies are obtained, e.g. plate-like particles with thickness less than 1 μm or spherical particles with size of a few nanometers. These precursors were processed further in to nano-sized composite powders and sintered to highly uniform tungsten composites with fine microstructures.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 47 p.
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2011:13
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42702ISBN: 978-91-7501-130-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-42702DiVA: diva2:447629
2011-11-02, sal 539, Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Engqvist, Håkan, Professor
Muhammed, Mamoun, Professor
QC 201110132011-10-132011-10-112011-10-25Bibliographically approved
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