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Immunohepatotoxicity of the persistent environmental pollutants perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), manufactured for a variety of industrial and consumer applications, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Their accumulation in humans and wildlife raises serious health concerns.

Here, we examined the potential effects of PFOA and PFOS on the innate immune system in mice. Short-term dietary exposure to high doses reduces the total number and subpopulations of circulating white blood cells. Moreover, production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow, but not in the spleen following exposure to in vitro or in vivo stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharides is enhanced. With respect to adaptive immunity, PFOS reduces the total numbers of thymocytes and splenocytes and subpopulations thereof in a dose dependent fashion. Furthermore, comparison of wild-type mice and the corresponding knock-out strain lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha revealed that these immunological changes are partially dependent on this receptor. Our further studies also show that sub-chronic dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of PFOS does not alter the cellularity of the thymus and spleen and exerts no influence on humoral immune responses.

To facilitate examination of the effects of PFOA and PFOS on the hepatic immune system, we developed a procedure for mechanical disruption that yields a larger number of functionally competent immune cells from this organ. In our last study, lower doses of PFOA or PFOS induced hypertrophy of hepatocytes and altered the hepatic immune status. Thus, we find that short-term, high- and low-dose exposure of mice to these fluorochemicals is immunohepatotoxic.

Abstract [sv]

Perfluorooktanat (PFOA) och perfluorooktansulfonat (PFOS) som tillverkas för många olika industri och konsumentprodukter, är globalt förekommande miljögifter. Deras ackumulering i människor och djur ger upphov till en stark oro för hälsoproblem.

Vi har granskat effekterna av PFOA och PFOS på det medfödda, ospecifika immunförsvaret. Exponering för höga doser via maten under kort tid minskar det totala antalet cirkulerande vita blodkroppar samt delpopulationerna.. Immunsvaret ökar dock efter stimulering med bakteriella lipopolysaccharider både in vitro och in vivo , dvs produktionen av proinflammatoriska cytokiner av makrofager i bukhålan och benmärgen, men inte i mjälten ökar.. När det gäller adaptiv, specifik immunitet minskar PFOS det totala antalet tymocyter och splenocyter och deras olika subpopulationer. Vid exponering för lägre doser av PFOS induceras hepatomegali utan att påverka tymus eller mjälten.   Vi kunde visa att peroxisomal proliferator-aktiverad receptor-alfa medierar effekterna utav PFOS i tymus samt delar av effekterna av PFOS i mjälten genom att använda möss som saknade denna receptor. . Dettastöds av vår studie med subkronisk exponering för en miljömässig dos av PFOS vilken inte ändrade den cellulära sammansättningen i vare sig  tymus eller mjälte och inte hade  något inflytande på det humorala immunsvaret.

För att underlätta studier av hur PFOA och PFOS påverkar immunsystemet i levern utvecklade vi en metod för framrening av immunceller via mekanisk sönderdelning av levern, vilket gavett större antal av funktionella  immunceller från detta organ. I vår sista studie kunde vi påvisa att lägre doser av PFOA eller PFOS inducerade hypertrofi av hepatocyter samt en påverkan av leverns immunförsvar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University , 2011. , 126 p.
Keyword [en]
Perfluorooctanoate, Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, Hepatomegaly, Immunotoxicity, Thymus, Spleen
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biochemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63180ISBN: 978-91-7447-381-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-63180DiVA: diva2:447257
Public defence
2011-11-21, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-30 Created: 2011-10-11 Last updated: 2011-11-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. High-dose, short-term exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) affects the number of circulating neutrophils differently, but enhances the inflammatory responses of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a similar fashion.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-dose, short-term exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) affects the number of circulating neutrophils differently, but enhances the inflammatory responses of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a similar fashion.
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2009 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 262, no 3, 207-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Having found previously that high-dose, short-term dietary exposure of mice to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) suppresses adaptive immunity, in the present study we characterize the effects of these fluorochemicals on the innate immune system. Male C57BL/6 mice receiving 0.02% (w/w) PFOS or PFOA in their diet for 10 days exhibited a significant reduction in the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), involving lymphopenia in both cases, but neutropenia only in response to treatment with PFOA. Moreover, both compounds also markedly reduced the number of macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) in the bone marrow, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity. The ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals treated with PFOA or PFOS was increased modestly. Moreover, both fluorochemicals markedly enhanced the ex vivo production of these same cytokines by peritoneal and bone marrow macrophages stimulated either in vitro or in vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); whereas there was no such effect on splenic macrophages. The serum levels of these inflammatory cytokines observed in response to in vivo stimulation with LPS were elevated substantially by prior exposure to PFOA, but not by PFOS. None of these parameters of innate immunity were altered in animals receiving a dietary dose of these compounds that was 20-fold lower (0.001%, w/w). These findings reveal that in addition to suppressing adaptive immunity, high-dose, short-term exposure of mice to either PFOS or PFOA augments inflammatory responses to LPS, a potent activator of innate immunity.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34686 (URN)10.1016/j.tox.2009.06.010 (DOI)000269287700005 ()19540903 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. The atrophy and changes in the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen observed in mice subjected to short-term exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate are high-dose phenomena mediated in part by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The atrophy and changes in the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen observed in mice subjected to short-term exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate are high-dose phenomena mediated in part by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha).
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2009 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 260, no 1-3, 68-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have previously shown that short-term, high-dose exposure of mice to the environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) results in thymic and splenic atrophy and the attenuation of specific humoral immune responses. Here we characterize the effects of a 10-day treatment with different dietary doses (1-0.001%, w/w) of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a similar fluorochemical, on the immune system of male C57BL/6 mice. At doses greater than 0.02%, PFOS induced clinical signs of toxicity in the animals, whereas at the concentration of 0.02%, this compound caused weight loss, hepatomegaly and atrophy of the thymus, spleen and adipose tissue without toxicity. With this latter dose, histopathological and flow-cytometric analysis revealed that (i) the thymic cortex was virtually depleted of cells; (ii) the total numbers of thymocytes and splenocytes were reduced by 84 and 43%, respectively; (iii) although all populations of thymocytes and splenocytes were smaller, the thymic CD4(+)CD8(+) cells and the splenic B-lymphocytes were most decreased. These alterations resembled those evoked by analogous exposure to PFOA, but were less pronounced. At lower doses (less than 0.02%), PFOS induced hepatomegaly without affecting the thymus or spleen. Finally, comparison of male wild-type 129/Sv mice and the corresponding knock-outs lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) indicated that these effects of PFOS are not strain-dependent. More importantly, hepatomegaly is independent of PPARalpha, the thymic changes are partially dependent on this receptor, and splenic responses are largely eliminated in its absence. Thus, immunomodulation caused by PFOS is a high-dose phenomenon partially dependent on PPARalpha.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34695 (URN)10.1016/j.tox.2009.03.009 (DOI)000267161000009 ()19464571 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. 28-Day dietary exposure of mice to a low total dose (7 mg/kg) of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alters neither the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen nor humoral immune responses: Does the route of administration play a pivotal role in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>28-Day dietary exposure of mice to a low total dose (7 mg/kg) of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alters neither the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen nor humoral immune responses: Does the route of administration play a pivotal role in PFOS-induced immunotoxicity?
2010 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 267, no 03-jan, 132-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Short-term exposure of mice to high doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), an ubiquitous and highly persistent environmental contaminant, induces various metabolic changes and toxic effects, including immunotoxicity. However, extrapolation of these findings to the long-term, low-dose exposures to which humans are subject is highly problematic. In this connection, recent studies have concluded that sub-chronic (28-day) exposure of mice by oral gavage to doses of PFOS that result in serum levels comparable to those found in general human populations suppress adaptive immunity. Because of the potential impact of these findings on environmental research and monitoring, we have examined here whether sub-chronic dietary exposure (a major route of human exposure) to a similarly low-dose of PFOS also suppress adaptive immune responses. Dietary treatment of male B6C3F1 mice for 28 days with a dose of PFOS that resulted in a serum concentration of 11 mu g/ml (ppm) significantly reduced body weight gain and increased liver mass. However, this treatment did not alter the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen; the number of splenic cells secreting IgM antibodies against sheep red blood cell (SRBC); serum levels of IgM and IgG antibodies specifically towards SRBC; or circulating levels of IgM antibodies against the T-cell-independent antigen trinitrophenyl conjugated to lipopolysaccharide (TNP-LPS). These findings indicate that such sub-chronic dietary exposure of mice to PFOS resulting in serum levels approximately 8-85-fold greater than those observed in occupationally exposed individuals does not exert adverse effects on adaptive immunity.

Keyword
Humoral immune responses, T-cell-independent antigen, T-cell-dependent antigen, Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-50059 (URN)10.1016/j.tox.2009.10.035 (DOI)000274588700017 ()
Note

authorCount :4

Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2010-12-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Isolation of murine intrahepatic immune cells employing a modified procedure for mechanical disruption and functional characterization of the B, T and natural killer T cells obtained.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isolation of murine intrahepatic immune cells employing a modified procedure for mechanical disruption and functional characterization of the B, T and natural killer T cells obtained.
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2009 (English)In: Clinical and experimental immunology, ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 155, no 2, 320-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC) are known to play central roles in immunological responses mediated by the liver, and isolation and phenotypic characterization of these cells is therefore of considerable importance. In the present investigation, we developed a simple procedure for the mechanical disruption of mouse liver that allows efficient isolation and phenotypic characterization of IHIC. These cells are compared with the corresponding cells purified from the liver after enzymatic digestion with different concentrations of collagenase and DNase. The mechanical disruption yielded viable IHIC in considerably greater numbers than those obtained following enzymatic digestion. The IHIC isolated employing the mechanical disruption were heterogeneous in composition, consisting of both innate and adaptive immune cells, of which B, T, natural killer (NK), NK T cells, granulocytes and macrophages were the major populations (constituting 37.5%, 16.5%, 12.1%, 7.9%, 7.9% and 7.5% of the total number of cells recovered respectively). The IHIC obtained following enzymatic digestion contained markedly lower numbers of NK T cells (1.8%). The B, T and NK T cells among IHIC isolated employing mechanical disruption were found to be immunocompetent, i.e. they proliferated in vitro in response to their specific stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A and alpha-galactosylceramide respectively) and produced immunoglobulin M and interferon-gamma. Thus, the simple procedure for the mechanical disruption of mouse liver described here results in more efficient isolation of functionally competent IHIC for various types of investigation.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34717 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03815.x (DOI)000262282400024 ()19040612 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
5. Dietary exposure to perfluorooctanoate or perfluorooctane sulfonate induces hypertrophy in centrilobular hepatocytes and alters the hepatic immune status in mice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary exposure to perfluorooctanoate or perfluorooctane sulfonate induces hypertrophy in centrilobular hepatocytes and alters the hepatic immune status in mice
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2010 (English)In: International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, E-ISSN 1878-1705, Vol. 10, no 11, 1420-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well established that exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces hepatomegaly and, concurrently, immunotoxicity. However, the effects of these perfluorochemicals on the histology and immune status of the liver have not been yet investigated and we have examined these issues here. Dietary treatment of male C57BL/6 mice with 0.002% (w/w) PFOA or 0.005% (w/w) PFOS for 10 days resulted in significant reductions in serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, a moderate increase in the serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hepatomegaly, without affecting other immune organs. This hepatomegaly was associated with marked hypertrophy of the centrilobular hepatocytes, with elevated numbers of cytoplasmic acidophilic granules and occasional mitosis. Furthermore, dietary exposure to PFOA or PFOS altered the hepatic immune status: whereas exposure to PFOA enhanced the numbers of total, as well as of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC), and in particular the presumptive erythrocyte progenitor cells, treatment with PFOS enhanced only the numbers of hepatic cells that appear immunophenotypically to be erythrocyte progenitors, without affecting other types of IHIC. In addition, exposure to these compounds attenuated hepatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the exposed animals exhibited a significant increase in hepatic levels of erythropoietin, a hormone required for erythropoiesis. Thus, in mice, PFOA- and PFOS-induced hepatomegaly is associated with significant alterations in hepatic histophysiology and immune status, as well as induction of hepatic erythropoiesis.

Keyword
Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Perfluorooctanoate, Hepatomegaly, Hepatic immune system, Intrahepatic immune cells, Erythropoiesis, Erythropoietin
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biophysics; Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-51627 (URN)10.1016/j.intimp.2010.08.009 (DOI)20816993 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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