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A Rational Exergy Management Model to Curb CO2 Emissions in the Exergy-Aware Built Environments of the Future
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis puts forth the means of a strategic approach to address a persistent problem in the energy system and in this way, to transition the built environment to a future state that is more exergy-aware to curb CO2 emissions. Such a vision is made possible by the six-fold contributions of the research work: I) An analytical model is developed, which for the first time, formulates the CO2 emissions that are compounded in the energy system as a function of the systematic failures to match the supply and demand of exergy. This model is namely the Rational Exergy Management Model or REMM. II) REMM is then applied to analyze the pathways in which it is possible to lead the built environment into addressing structural overshoots in its exergy supply to curb CO2 emissions. The cases that embody these pathways are also analyzed over a base case, including cases for sustainable heating and cooling. III) New tools are designed to augment decision-making and exemplify a paradigm shift in the more rational usage of exergy to curb CO2 emissions. These include a scenario-based analysis tool, new options for CO2 wedges, and a multi-fold solution space for CO2 mitigation strategies based on REMM. IV) The concept of a net-zero exergy building (NZEXB) is developed and related to REMM strategies as the building block of an exergy-aware energy system. The target of a NZEXB is further supported by key design principles, which address shortcomings in state-of-the-art net-zero design. V) A premier building that deployed the key design principles to integrate building technology in an innovative, exergy-aware design and received LEED Platinum is analyzed on the basis of the NZEXB target. The results validate that this building boosts net self-sufficiency and curbs compound CO2 emissions, which are then presented in a proposed scheme to benchmark and/or label future NZEXBs. VI) Based on the scalability of the best-practices of the NZEXB ready building, the means to realize a smarter energy system that has exergy-aware relations in each aspect of the value chain to curb CO2 emissions are discussed. This includes a target for such a network at the community level, namely a net-zero exergy community (NZEXC). As a whole, the results of the thesis indicate that the strategic approach as provided by REMM and the NZEXB target of the research work has the potential to steer the speed and direction of societal action to curb CO2 emissions. The thesis concludes with a roadmap that represents a cyclical series of actions that may be scaled-up at various levels of the built environment in a transition to be in better balance with the Planet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , x, 74 p.
Series
Meddelande. Institutionen för byggvetenskap, ISSN 1651-5563 ; 204
Keyword [en]
Exergy, CO2 emissions, built environment, buildings, energy system, scenario-based analysis, mitigation strategies, net-zero, LEED, energy transition, transition management
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42469ISBN: 978-91-7501-129-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-42469DiVA: diva2:447136
Public defence
2011-11-09, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 15:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-14 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Rational Exergy Management Model for Curbing Building CO2 Emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Rational Exergy Management Model for Curbing Building CO2 Emissions
2007 (English)In: ASHRAE Transactions, ISSN 0001-2505, Vol. 113, no 2, 113-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rational exergy management model was developed, which establishes a common metric and provides a tool for matching the exergy of energy sources with different applications in the built environment for global sustainability. In order to develop and evaluate this model, first a base case was defined, which involves a building using a natural gas boiler for comfort heating and receiving electricity from a remote thermal power plant. For the base case, the rational exergy management efficiency, which is a measure of the level of match in the supply and demand of exergy, is only 4%. To analyze the impact of increasing the rational exergy efficiency on carbon mitigation relative to the base case, three exergy and environment aware cases were considered. These cases were: the same building thermally linked to the power plant through a district energy system (Case One), the same building with a micro CHP using a natural gas internal combustion engine (Case Two), and the same building with a renewable energy driven electric power generator and a ground-source heat pump (Case Three). A detailed analysis of the carbon reduction potential of the three cases revealed that it is possible to realize a new CO2 reducing wedge in addition to the seven wedges that have already been identified by the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI). Calculations show that Case Three may reduce the global emissions to about 6 GtC/year by the year 2055 from the current value of 7 GtC/year. Therefore, the eighth wedge may not only help to stabilize the current levels of emissions but also decrease it below the current level. This paper explains the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), its emission projections, and describes the three cases in detail. Results indicate the importance of rational exergy management for global sustainability and next-generation green buildings and show that this metric can manage a robust roadmap to curb CO2 emissions from buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlanta: ASHRAE, 2007
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42460 (URN)000253310400013 ()
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111012Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Rational Exergy Management Model for Sustainable Buildings to Reduce CO2 Emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rational Exergy Management Model for Sustainable Buildings to Reduce CO2 Emissions
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the 40th Congress on HVAC&R, Belgrade: KGH , 2009, , 22 p.391-412 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aiming to respond to ever-urgent needs for strategies to curb buildings’ CO2 emissions at large, a new model, namely the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), was developed. REMM provides a new analytical perspective on the energy usage and emissions of buildings with an intra-systems scope. It links the initial mismatch in the supply and demand of exergy to broader impacts in the energy system. Particularly, based on a cross-cutting parameter, it formulates the compound CO2 emissions factor, which includes a direct and avoidable CO2 emissions footprint according to the level of exergy mismatch. Presently, base-case buildings have sub-optimal values due to structural exergy overshoots. This paper thus exemplifies an array of strategies developed for exergy-green paradigm shifts. These include supply, demand-driven, and hybrid approaches, and net-zero exergy building targets, which integrate into multi-fold CO2 mitigation strategies for buildings. A new, exergy-mapping technique furthers the demand-driven approach for bundles of renewable energy. Furthermore, an analysis tool based on exergy-centric scenarios formulates the CO2 savings relative to the base-case to expand the horizon of existing CO2 wedges. The paper concludes that REMM identifies key opportunities for sustainable buildings to capture their vast CO2 reduction potential and increase their lead in CO2 mitigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Belgrade: KGH, 2009. 22 p.
Keyword
energy, sustainable buildings, exergy, CO2 emissions, net-zero buildings, carbon mitigation
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42461 (URN)978-86-81505-50-2 (ISBN)
Conference
The 40th Congress on HVAC&R, Belgrade 2009
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20111014

Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2014-05-23Bibliographically approved
3. An Optimum Decision-Making Algorithm for Energy Efficient Cooling in Green Cities: From Split Systems to District Cooling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Optimum Decision-Making Algorithm for Energy Efficient Cooling in Green Cities: From Split Systems to District Cooling
2010 (English)In: ASHRAE Transactions, ISSN 0001-2505, Vol. 116, no Part 2, 116-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the dilemmas of this decade seems to be the fact that the need for comfort and high-density cooling increases with global warming while global warming further increases with its resultant CO2 emissions. This dilemma can only be solved by achieving cooling systems with smaller CO2 footprints. This effort involves multiple fronts, namely, new, sustainable, and low-exergy cooling systems, highly efficient cooling energy supplies, novel distribution networks, and innovative energy conversion systems. All of these solutions must, however, meet at a common denominator for decision-making. In this paper, the common denominator is defined to be the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), which provides a robust algorithm to link the supply and demand exergy points in the cooling sector for a given district. The objective is to minimize the CO2 footprint of the entire cooling sector in a district to guide green cities from split systems to district cooling.

National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32015 (URN)000288475800013 ()2-s2.0-79952678802 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20110406 Har ingått i: 2010 ASHRAE Annual Conference; Albuquerque, NM; 26 June 2010 through 30 June 2010Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. A New Rational Exergy Management Model Guided Metric for Evaluating Sustainable Cooling Strategies for Low-Exergy Green Buildings and Cities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Rational Exergy Management Model Guided Metric for Evaluating Sustainable Cooling Strategies for Low-Exergy Green Buildings and Cities
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010, Antalya, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper applies the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM) to evaluate sustainable cooling strategies for low-exergy green buildings and green cities, mimicking ecosystems that utilize exergy more optimally. The paper includes a special formulation of the exergy demand for space cooling and a definition of an effective temperature of solar insolation based on a technique of exergy-mapping. The alternatives to a base case as characterized by structural exergy overshoots and high avoidable CO2 emissions impacts include absorption cooling with renewable energies for district cooling in high-density areas. A new, REMM guided built environment signature is also provided to monitor transformations towards a foresight for a built ecosystem. The paper concludes that there must be significant progress for more optimal linkages in the exergy supply and exergy demand points to minimize CO2 emissions impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Antalya: , 2010
Series
Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42462 (URN)978-975-6907-14-6 (ISBN)
Conference
10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
5. An Optimum Decision-Making Algorithm for Efficient Heating and Cooling in Cities: Towards Exergy-Green Cities to Curb CO2 Emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Optimum Decision-Making Algorithm for Efficient Heating and Cooling in Cities: Towards Exergy-Green Cities to Curb CO2 Emissions
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010, Antalya, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Based on the Rational Exergy Management Model, this paper puts forth a new, multifold decision-making benchmark to develop CO2 mitigation strategies for efficient heating and cooling in cities. In addressing both heating and cooling in the built environment, this paper discusses the low exergy demands for all variants of the annual thermodynamic flows to be counteracted to maintain indoor air temperatures. The new benchmark is particularly useful in strategies to transform districts into exergy-green districts given a critical mass of buildings that adopt appropriate strategies. The results lead to a potential for substantial CO2 savings, better linkages in the supply and demand points of exergy in exergy-green cities, and exergy-led urban symbiosis. A case study on a capital city district is also provided as a sample of a CO2 mitigation strategy utilizing the benchmark over a 10-year strategy timeframe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Antalya: , 2010
Series
Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42463 (URN)978-975-6907-14-6 (ISBN)
Conference
10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
6. A New Metric for Net- Zero Carbon Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Metric for Net- Zero Carbon Buildings
2007 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY CONFERENCE 2007, 2007, 219-224 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, a new carbon equivalency metric was developed in order to quantify the compound carbon emissions for which buildings are responsible in the built environment. This metric first analyses the rationale about the management of the exergy balance among the supply and demand that is involved in satisfying building power and energy loads. Then using the degree of the rationale found, direct carbon emissions from the building and avoidable secondary carbon emissions for which the building is responsible due to exergy mismatches are calculated. Based on this metric, a net-zero carbon building definition was introduced and its advantages for quantifying the actual impact of buildings on global sustainability were discussed in comparison to net-zero energy building and carbon neutral building concepts. A case study for an example net-zero energy building is presented, which reveals that the new carbon equivalency metric can indicate whether the building is actually environmentally neutral or not. The results show that the example building has negative impacts on the environment and global sustainability in terms of carbon emissions even though it is rated as a net-zero building. This paper also discusses that although another new, net-zero exergy building definition may reduce the shortcomings of the net-zero building definition, the net-zero carbon building metric may accurately rate the environmental impact of buildings. Beyond carbon emissions from buildings, the same metric can be used for any variety of greenhouse emissions and sectors.

National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42464 (URN)10.1115/ES2007-36263 (DOI)000254287400026 ()
Conference
ASME 2007 Energy Sustainability Conference (ES2007) July 27–30, 2007 , Long Beach, California, USA
Note
QC 20111012Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
7. Optimization of Heat Pump Applications for Net-Zero Exergy Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of Heat Pump Applications for Net-Zero Exergy Buildings
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th IEA Heat Pump Conference / [ed] Prof. Dr. Thomas Kopp, Zürich, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Steering a change for global sustainability requires a new, rationale driven approach that provides guidance to reduce emissions and protect the environment. The Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM) provides the approach of balancing natural energy resources based on their useful work potential, or exergy. For the first time, REMM formulates the level of match in the supply and demand of exergy to broader impacts on CO2 emissions, which becomes very important to reduce global warming. Furthermore, its new parameter effectively shows the ways to reduce CO2 emissions that have been compounded. The application of REMM to the building sector, the largest contributor of CO2 emissions, presents examples to think beyond the present characteristics of buildings. It also shows that heat pumps must be optimized with exergy matches in combined heat and power systems to reduce compound CO2 emissions. It is expected that this approach will be put into practice to achieve carbon wedges from buildings and set a vision for net-zero exergy buildings. An analysis tool is also developed to support the educational purposes of the REMM model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zürich: , 2008
Keyword
exergy, CO2 emissions, heat pumps, analysis tool
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42466 (URN)
Conference
9th IEA Heat Pump Conference
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111012Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
8. Net-Zero Energy or Net-Zero Exergy Buildings for a Sustainable Built Environment?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Net-Zero Energy or Net-Zero Exergy Buildings for a Sustainable Built Environment?
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010, Antalya, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper puts forth a new metric that identifies a net-zero exergy building (ZEXB) target and distinguishes the parameters that affect the results of obtaining a “net-zero” status based on the trade of exergy with the grid and/or thermal energy loop. Key strategies that guide buildings to meet and exceed ZEXB targets are underlined. These include strategies based on the re-linkage of energy resources based on higher exergy matches while reducing any CO2 emission impacts. The means of bringing buildings that deploy on-site, micro production of electricity, heat, and/or cold from renewable energy resources to ZEXB targets are discussed. A net-zero exergy community (ZEXC) target is then provided to set pace for the diversified trade of exergy in the locally more interconnected energy systems of the future. The results expand net-zero targets with exergy based strategies for a sustainable built environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Antalya: , 2010
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42467 (URN)978-975-6907-14-6 (ISBN)
Conference
10th REHVA World Congress CLIMA 2010
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
9. Optimizing Low CO2 Solutions with Heat Pumps for Net-Zero Exergy Communities of the Future
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing Low CO2 Solutions with Heat Pumps for Net-Zero Exergy Communities of the Future
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference, Tokyo, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Net-zero building design is a potentially transformational concept for the energy systems of today. State-of-the art in net-zero building design, however, is not without major shortcomings, which may be addressed through net-zero exergy buildings (NZEXB). This paper provides key insight into the design principles of NZEXBs based on lessons that are learned from a premier net-zero exergy “ready” building in Ankara. These include building technology integration with better exergy matches in a multi-path approach and diversified thermal energy storage as a buffer between the supply and demand of exergy to reduce CO2 emission impacts. Modeled data indicate that the building will attain “net” self-sufficiency with an annual exergy consumption of 60 kWh/m2-yr and proposed renewable exergy supply of 62 kWh/m2-yr. Furthermore, the building has a 75% savings in compound CO2 emission impacts over a baseline building. The results indicate that NZEXBs are the “building blocks” for the more exergy-aware energy value chains of tomorrow. The strategies that were utilized at the building level are thus applicable to being scaled-up to higher levels in the energy system. The paper concludes with key strategies for the net-zero exergy communities of the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo: , 2011
Keyword
net-zero, exergy, buildings, CO2 mitigation
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-42468 (URN)
Conference
10th IEA Heat Pump Conference
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20111014Available from: 2011-10-10 Created: 2011-10-10 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved

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