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Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
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2012 (English)In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 163, no 4, 631-651 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2–8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7–12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3–7 km) and sub-Moho (23–28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (<7 km) and a lower to mid-crustal magma storage region (>7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 163, no 4, 631-651 p.
Keyword [en]
Anak Krakatau, Thermobarometry, Clinopyroxene, Plagioclase, Magma plumbing, Seismic tomography
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159368DOI: 10.1007/s00410-011-0690-8ISI: 000302373800004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-159368DiVA: diva2:444512
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Magma plumbing architecture in Indonesia and the North Atlantic Igneous Province
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma plumbing architecture in Indonesia and the North Atlantic Igneous Province
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Magma plumbing systems represent the physical framework of magma transport and storage from the source region in the mantle, through the crust, until reaching the surface in a volcanic eruption. Characterising the different aspects of magma plumbing, in particular the distribution of magma storage zones throughout the crust, is of key importance to better understand the behaviour of individual volcanoes. In particular, shallow crustal magma storage and associated magma-crust interaction processes could potentially explain some of the worlds most unpredictable and explosive volcanoes. This thesis studies magma plumbing architecture in the Sunda Arc (Indonesia), and the North Atlantic Igneous Province, based on elemental and isotope geochemistry, and derived petrological modelling.

In this study, I have employed petrological models, so called geothermobarometers, to calculate pressures and temperatures (P-T) of crustal magma storage. Geothermobarometers are calibrated thermodynamic formulations based on the composition of magmatic minerals and their co-existing melt as a function of the P-T conditions of crystallisation. Using the calculated P-T estimates, I was able to derive the depth of magma storage, and thereby reconstruct the architecture of magma storage systems. A number of different geothermobarometers based on different mineral phases, including plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, were used for this purpose,

The geothermobarometric modelling was combined with additional elemental and isotope geochemical analyses, as well as collaborations with geophysical investigations. These additional approaches were used to corroborate the findings of the geothermobarometric modelling, and also to model and quantify magma-crust interaction processes that take place during crustal magma storage, such as assimilation of crustal lithologies into the magmatic system.

The findings of this thesis build upon the growing body of evidence in support of the prevalence of shallow magma storage in different volcanic settings worldwide. This realisation is relevant to volcano monitoring and hazard mitigation worldwide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 46 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1328
Keyword
magma plumbing, geothermobarometry, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magma-crust interaction, hazard mitigation
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267764 (URN)978-91-554-9430-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-28, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2017-07-12

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Dahrén, BörjeTroll, Valentin R.

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