Airway maturation in Drosophila
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Tubes are a fundamental unit of organ design. Most of our major organs like the lung, kidney and vasculature are composed primarily of tubes. To identify fundamental biological principles of tubular organ formation we used the respiratory organ of Drosophila melanogaster, the trachea.This work dissects embryonic trachea maturation. Three precise epithelial transitions occur during airway maturation. A secretion burst deposits proteins into the lumen; then luminal material is cleared and finally liquid is removed. We identified the cellular mechanisms behind these transitions. Sar1 and γCOP are required for protein secretion, matrix assembly and tube expansion. Rab5-dependent endocytic activity internalizes and clears luminal contents. The data show how programmed transitions in cellular activities form functional airways, and may reflect a general mechanism in respiratory organ morphogenesis.We further focused on tube size regulation. We identified Melanotransferrin, a new component of septate junctions that limits tracheal tube elongation. MTf is a lipid- modified, iron-binding protein attached to epithelial cell membranes, similarly to its human homologue. We show that septate junction assembly during epithelial maturation relies on endocytosis and apicolateral recycling of iron-bound MTf. Mouse MTf complements the defects of Drosophila MTf mutants. This provides the first genetic model for the functional dissection of MTf in epithelial morphogenesis. In the last part, we describe two genes, which are selectively involved in tube diameter expansion. Obst-A and Gasp are closely related proteins with characteristic chitin-binding domains. They are strongly expressed in the trachea at the time of lumen expansion. The single and double mutants cause a tube diameter reduction, whereas their overexpression leads to its increase. We propose that Obst-A and Gasp organize luminal matrix assembly and thereby regulate the extent of tube diameter expansion.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University , 2011. , 18 p.
Research subject Developmental Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-62419ISBN: 978-91-7447-338-4.OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-62419DiVA: diva2:441691
2011-10-21, Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, 10:00 (English)
Fehon, Richard, Professor
Samakovlis, Christos, Professor
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.2011-09-292011-09-192011-09-29Bibliographically approved
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