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Relevance and Reliability of Area-Wide Congestion Performance Measures in Road Networks
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For operational and planning purposes it is important to observe, predict and monitor the traffic performance of congested urban road links and networks. This monitoring effort describes the traffic conditions in road networks using congestion performance measures. The objective of this research is to analyse and evaluate methods for measuring congestion and congestion performance measures for monitoring purposes. For this objective, a selection of the required aspects of the performance measures in the literature is considered. The aspects to be considered can be classified into two categories: A first group relates to the statistical aspects of these indicators, i.e. reliability. The second relates to their ability to capture the impacts of congestion, i.e .relevance. The reliability and relevance of the congestion performance measures are evaluated. A recommendation of the most suitable indicator is provided at the end of the study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 52 p.
Series
Trita-TEC-PHD, ISSN 1653-4468 ; 11:002
Keyword [en]
Congestion Performance Measures, Reliability, Relevance, Road networks
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
SRA - Transport
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39551OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-39551DiVA: diva2:440122
Public defence
2011-09-22, E1, Lindstedtsvägen 3, KTH, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20110912Available from: 2011-09-12 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2012-06-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Area wide analysis of urban road traffic congestion: Analysis of travel time based measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Area wide analysis of urban road traffic congestion: Analysis of travel time based measures
2006 (English)In: 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service / [ed] Hideki Nakamura, Tokyo, Japan: Japan Society of traffic Engineers - JSTE , 2006, 439-448 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo, Japan: Japan Society of traffic Engineers - JSTE, 2006
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
SRA - Transport
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39541 (URN)
Conference
5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20110912Available from: 2011-09-12 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2011-09-12Bibliographically approved
2. Reliability of congestion measures: Stockholm's case
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability of congestion measures: Stockholm's case
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport, ISSN 0965-092X, E-ISSN 1751-7710, Vol. 163, no 2, 85-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Stockholm congestion charging trial was implemented with the aim of satisfying a number of transport policy objectives related to reducing car use in the central area of Stockholm. However, the multifaceted nature of congestion that the charges aimed to alleviate was not technically defined. The traffic impact evaluation efforts were based on survey results for chosen links without any scientific review of the dynamic character of congestion or any investigation of the statistical characteristics of the chosen congestion indicator. Neither was there any analysis of area networks nor any calculation of an overall indicator. Based on a literature review, approaches for defining congestion and a number of alternative congestion performance measures were selected. Data from the trial 'before' and 'after' surveys were used to estimate congestion levels and the accuracy of the performance measures. Specific issues and lessons regarding the quality of the data collection are discussed. Accuracy rankings are presented for different cases, concluding that some performance measures showed better reliability in all situations whereas others proved to always be less reliable. These findings are used as a basis for recommendations regarding the implementations of the congestion indicators studied.

Keyword
statistical analysis, traffic engineering, transport management
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
SRA - Transport; SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27899 (URN)10.1680/tran.2010.163.2.85 (DOI)000277320500005 ()2-s2.0-77953481697 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUpTrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note
QC 20110110Available from: 2011-01-10 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Congestion indicators from the users’ perspective: alternative formulations with stochastic reference level
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congestion indicators from the users’ perspective: alternative formulations with stochastic reference level
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Congestion causes delays and environmental impacts. Policy makers and transport planners have used congestion indicators for monitoring traffic conditions in urban areas. These indicators require defining a reference level of congestion (based for example on free flow conditions). In most cases reported in the literature this reference point is constant and typically corresponds to speed limits. This paper proposes a methodology for the definition of congestion indicators that takes into consideration the preferences and variability across the individual commuters and hence, develops congestion indicators from the users of the system point of view. An analytical approach is developed pointing out that, as expected, for certain simple distributions of desired speed (i.e. triangular) some indicators are biased. A case study using a microscopic simulation model to study a small, dense, and very congested urban network in Stockholm illustrates the impact of applying this new definition in the calculation of congestion indicators. The results of the case study illustrate the bias of existing methods and identify indicators that are less sensitive to the distribution of the reference speed among drivers.

National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39544 (URN)
Conference
12th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010, Lisbon
Note
QC 20110912Available from: 2011-09-12 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2011-09-12Bibliographically approved
4. Congestion Indicators and Congestion Impacts: A Study on the Relevance of Area-wide Indicators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congestion Indicators and Congestion Impacts: A Study on the Relevance of Area-wide Indicators
2011 (English)In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 11, 781-791 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Congestion indicators for monitoring congestion in road area networks have been devised to use the output of long-term planning models which makes them insensitive to the dynamics of congestion or pollutant emissions. The objective of the present study is to compare the capabilities of different congestion indicators for describing congestion impacts (delays and emissions) considering a dynamic framework analysis. Microsimulation is used for estimating the congestion indicators as well as the congestion impacts in a disaggregated and dynamic mode. The indicators with the best descriptive capabilities are identified. Recommendations about indicators are provided for road practitioners.

Keyword
Pollutant emissions; Traffic performance measures; Traffic simulation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39549 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.497 (DOI)000298556100074 ()2-s2.0-79960032179 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service
Note
QC 20110912Available from: 2011-09-12 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
5. A study on factors affecting the relationship between congestion impacts and congestion performance measures in area-road networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study on factors affecting the relationship between congestion impacts and congestion performance measures in area-road networks
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Congestion performance measures (CPMs) are a key part of decision making. There are several aspects they have to fulfill in order to be useful tools for performance based planning. The relevance aspect corresponds to the capacity of a CPM to capture the impacts of congestion. Previous studies have identified factors that can impact the relevance of the indicators. Additionally, current congestion performance measures use the output of long term planning models. This made the indicators insensitive to the dynamics of congestion. Current improvements in traffic information and data availability have not been followed by corresponding evaluations of how congestion indicators describe the impacts of congestion. The present study is devoted to analyzing these factors with a special focus on factors influencing pollutant emissions. The car fleet composition has significant influenced when comparing areas with different car fleet compositions, hence it was not possible to identify the indicator that performed best. When the car fleet compositions between two areas are similar, the indicators that provided higher relevance were Relative Speed Reduction (Weighted Average) and Excess Delay. The percentage of heavy vehicles does not influence the capabilities of capturing the impacts of congestion. A discussion about how relevant aspects act together with other desired aspects for CPMs is presented. Recommendations for practitioners are presented at the end of the document.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: TRB, 2012
Keyword
Congestion Performance measures, Road Network, Microsimulation, Emissions
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-39685 (URN)
Conference
TRB 2012
Note
QC 20110913Available from: 2011-09-13 Created: 2011-09-12 Last updated: 2011-09-13Bibliographically approved

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