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Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All Electric Vehicles: a Review
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
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2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a critical review of the drivelines in all Electric Vehicles (EVs). The motor topologies that are the best candidates to be used in EVs are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each electric motor type are discussed from a system perspective. A survey of the electric motors used in commercial EVs is presented. The survey shows that car manufacturers are very conservative when it comes to introducing new technologies. Most of the EV’s in the market mount a single induction or permanent magnet motor with a traditional mechanic driveline with a differential. The study illustrates that comparisons between the different motors are made difficult by the large number of parameters and the lack of a recommended test scheme. The authors propose that a standardized drive cycle is used to test and compare motors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 61, no 2, p. 475-484
Keywords [en]
Motor drives, Road vehicle electric propulsion, Road vehicle power systems, Traction motors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157858DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2011.2177873ISI: 000300427400005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-157858DiVA, id: diva2:436561
Available from: 2012-04-19 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. FEM Analysis Applied to Electric Machines for Electric Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FEM Analysis Applied to Electric Machines for Electric Vehicles
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicle technology is an interdisciplinary field in continuous development. It appears to be a margin for improvements. The Division for Electricity at Uppsala University is doing significant research in the field. The present thesis investigates electric machines for vehicular applications, both in the driveline and in the traction motor.

Section 1 presents a driveline with two galvanically isolated voltage levels. A low power side is operated at the optimum voltage of the batteries, while a high power side is operated at a higher voltage leading to higher efficiencies in the traction motor. Both sides are coupled through a flywheel that stabilizes the power transients inherent to a drive cycle.

A review of electric machine topologies for electric vehicles is presented in Section 2. The permanent magnet excited machine is the most suitable technology for an electric driveline.

Section 3 is devoted to numerical models applied to electric machines. The equivalent circuit of a motor/generator with two sets of windings is first presented. This machine couples both sides of the driveline and drives the rotor of the flywheel. The electric parameters are calculated with custom FEM models. A discussion on slotless machines concludes with a simple model to analyze the magnetic field from one static 3D simulation. The tooth ripple losses in solid salient poles are also analyzed with a novel FEM approach. A complete description of the losses in electric machines gives a proper background for further discussion on efficiency.

Section 4 presents the experimental work constructed to validate the theoretical models. The experiments include an axial flux, single wounded prototype, an axial flux, double wound prototype and a planed radial flux coreless prototype.

Section 5 focuses on traction motors for electric vehicles. A simulated prototype illustrates a design and calculation process. The loss theory and the numerical methods presented in Section 3 are applied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis, 2011. p. 54
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 845
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-157879 (URN)978-91-554-8136-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-07, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1,, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-16 Created: 2011-08-24 Last updated: 2011-11-03Bibliographically approved
2. Full Scale Applications of Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Energy Converters: From Nd2Fe14B to Ferrite
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Full Scale Applications of Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Energy Converters: From Nd2Fe14B to Ferrite
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents research regarding a full scale linear ferrite permanent magnet generator, installed in a wave energy conversion system. The ferrite based magnetic circuit, supplementing the previous utilized Nd2Fe14B-magnet design, is designed with an electromagnetic numerical simulation tool, where the model is derived from Maxwell’s equations. The full scale design is, known to the author, the first developed linear ferrite based machine. The material change in the magnetic circuit required different mechanical solutions of the generator. The fundamental, primary theory and reasoning behind the new mechanical design is here presented, where sustainability, economy and production have been in focus and affected the final design. Two versions of the generator have been assembled and deployed at the projects experimental site on the Swedish west coast, and three more are under construction, planned to be installed during the autumn of 2013.  

Further, the thesis presents an electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena. Full scale experimental results present a successfully achieved electric resonance between the linear wave energy generator and external circuit.

Finally, research regarding a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle is presented. Detailed analytical and numerical calculations are utilized to investigate the losses in the machine over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate the possibility of an increased efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system and argue for elimination of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased.   

The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the Lysekil Wave Power Project, developed by a research group at Uppsala University, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electric vehicles with ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System.      

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. p. 75
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1074
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207280 (URN)978-91-554-8752-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-25, Polhemsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Regementsvägen 1, Uppsala, 15:55 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2014-01-23
3. Grid Connection of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Renewable Energy Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grid Connection of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Renewable Energy Systems
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Renewable energy is harnessed from continuously replenishing natural processes. Some commonly known are sunlight, water, wind, tides, geothermal heat and various forms of biomass. The focus on renewable energy has over the past few decades intensified greatly. This thesis contributes to the research on developing renewable energy technologies, within the wind power, wave power and marine current power projects at the division of Electricity, Uppsala University. In this thesis grid connection of permanent magnet generator based renewable energy sources is evaluated.

A tap transformer based grid connection system has been constructed and experimentally evaluated for a vertical axis wind turbine. Full range variable speed operation of the turbine is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. This removes the need for a DC/DC step or an active rectifier on the generator side of the full frequency converter and thereby reduces system complexity. Experiments and simulations of the system for variable speed operation are done and efficiency and harmonic content are evaluated. 

The work presented in the thesis has also contributed to the design, construction and evaluation of a full-scale offshore marine substation for wave power intended to grid connect a farm of wave energy converters. The function of the marine substation has been experimentally tested and the substation is ready for deployment. Results from the system verification are presented. Special focus is on the transformer losses and transformer in-rush currents.

A control and grid connection system for a vertical axis marine current energy converter has been designed and constructed. The grid connection is done with a back-to-back 2L-3L system with a three level cascaded H-bridge converter grid side. The system has been tested in the laboratory and is ready to be installed at the experimental site. Results from the laboratory testing of the system are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. p. 79
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1436
Keywords
VAWT, H-rotor, Tap Transformer, Cascaded H-bridge Multi-Level, Renewable Energy, Wind power, Wave power, Marine Current Power
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304659 (URN)978-91-554-9712-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-25, Polhemsalen, 10134, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Wind PowerWave PowerMarine Currnet Power
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2016-11-16Bibliographically approved

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