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System integration of electronic functionality in packaging application
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sensor applications are becoming increasingly important as products are now being requested to be more and more intelligent and safe. As the costs involved in sensor technology decrease its usage will spread to new market segments including new areas with products that have never previously used such functionalities, including, wood fibre based products for packaging, hygiene or graphical use. Currently there is a significant interest in developing technology that will allow packages to become interactive and be integrated with digital services accessible on the Internet. In this thesis, the system integration of a hybrid RFID based sensor platform is presented. This proposed platform provides a trade-off between the communication performance and its compatibility with international standards and also includes flexibility in on‐package customization, including the type and number of sensors. In addition it combines the use of traditional silicon based electronics with printed electronics directly onto wood fibre based materials so as to enable the possibility of creating smart packages. Together with the system integration of the sensor platform, five printed moisture sensor concepts that are designed to work with the sensor platform are presented and characterized. Firstly, there is a moisture sensor that shows a good correlation to the moisture content of wood fibre based substrates. The second one involves a sensor that detects high relative humidity levels in the air and the third is an action activated energy cell that provides power when activated by moisture. The fourth one deals with two types of moisture sensors that utilize silver nano-particles in order to measure the relative humidity in the air. The final one is a printable touch sensitive sensor that is sensitive to the moisture contained in the hand. A concept of remote moisture sensing that utilizes ordinary low cost RFID tags has also been presented and characterized.

The main focus is thus on system integration to, by combining silicon based electronics with printed electronics, find the most low cost solution with regards to flexibility, sensor functions and still meet the communication standards.

Abstract [sv]

När efterfrågan på mer intelligenta och säkra produkter ökar så ökar även intresset för olika typer av sensorer. När kostnaden för dessa sensorer sjunker så kommer användandet av dessa att utökas till nya marknadssegment som tidigare inte använt denna typ av funktionalitet, som tillexempel pappersbaserade förpackningar, hygienartiklar och papper för grafiskttryck. Det är för närvarande ett stort intresse att utveckla tekniker som tillåter förpackningar att bli interaktiva och integrerade med olika digitala tjänster kopplade till Internet. I denna avhandling så presenteras systemintegrationen av en RFID baserad sensor plattform som tillhandahåller en avvägning mellan kommunikationsprestanda, kompabilitet med internationella standarder och kundanpassningsflexibilitet. Där man direkt på förpackningen kombinerar fördelarna med traditionell kiselbaserad elektronik med trycktelektronik för att kunna skapa intelligenta förpackningar. I avhandlingen presenteras och utvärderas även fem trycka fuktsensorer som är designade att kunna användas tillsammans med sensor plattformen. Den första sensorn mäter fukthalten i cellulosabaserade substrat. Den andra kan detektera höga fukthalter i luften. Den tredje, som aktiveras vid en händelse, producerar en elektrisk ström när den blir fuktig. Den fjärde sensorn använder sig av silverbaserade partiklar i nanostorlek för att mäta fukthalten i luften. Den femte sensorn är en beröringskänslig sensor som ger utslag av fukten i handen. Utöver dessa sensorer så utvärderas även ett koncept med en fuktsensor som kan läsas av på avstånd.

Fokus är således att på system integrationsnivå, med hjälp av att kombinera kisel elektronik med tryckt elektronik, hitta den mest kostnadseffektiva lösningen med avseende på flexibilitet, sensor funktionalitet och att även kunna möta kommunikationsstandarderna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2011. , 97 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 112
Keyword [en]
sensor platform, RFID, printed electronics, moisture sensors
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14311Local ID: STCISBN: 978‐91‐86694‐49‐4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-14311DiVA: diva2:434473
Public defence
2011-09-23, O102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-16 Created: 2011-08-15 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Printed touch sensor for interactive packaging and display
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed touch sensor for interactive packaging and display
2007 (English)In: Polytronic 2007: the 6th International IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, 12-17 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this work we present a study on the performance of printed touch sensor fabricated using conductive ink on paper substrates. The sensor system is intended to add values in surveillance of packages or in interactive point-of-purchase displays. The printed sensor changes its capacitance when it is touched or manipulated. The capacitance variations are readout using either a wireless or wired communication link. The most advanced system will utilize RFID or ZigBee readout technology while the simplest systems utilize a simple analog wire solution. The sensor technology has been developed to be easily integrated into high quality prints targeting applications such as large area touch sensitive commercial stands, flat keyboards at point-of-purchase and touch and manipulation surveillance in logistic chains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Keyword
Interactive display, Printed touch sensitive sensors, Printed moisture sensors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3536 (URN)2-s2.0-49949111853 (Scopus ID)4412 (Local ID)4412 (Archive number)4412 (OAI)
Conference
Polytronic 2007 - 6th International IEEE Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics; Tokyo; Japan; 15 January 2007 through 18 January 2007
Projects
STC - Sensible Things that Communicate
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of Printed Moisture Sensors in Packaging Surveillance Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Printed Moisture Sensors in Packaging Surveillance Applications
2009 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 9, no 8, 922-928 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents a study on the performance of printed low cost moisture sensors fabricated using conductive ink on paper substrates. The sensors are intended to add value to the surveillance of packages. Two different kinds of sensors are evaluated and characterized. The two sensors have similar geometrical shapes, but different measuring principles are employed. The first sensor is measuring the moisture content in cellulose based substrates, while the second is measuring high levels of relative humidity in the surroundings. The sensors have been developed so that they can be integrated into Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems for surveillance in logistic chains. A laboratory setup of a RFID tag with sensor capability based on an ordinary passive RFID tag has been shown.

Keyword
Moisture content sensor, relative humidity sensor, printed sensors
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7048 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2009.2024866 (DOI)000268020400008 ()2-s2.0-67749088246 (Scopus ID)5033 (Local ID)5033 (Archive number)5033 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Designing of RFID based Sensor Solution for Packaging Surveillance Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing of RFID based Sensor Solution for Packaging Surveillance Applications
2011 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 11, 3009-3018 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a two-chip battery assisted Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based sensor platform is presented. The radio frequency communication interface is based on the EPC Gen 2 standard. A laboratory setup of the platform has been shown and characterized for a moisture content sensor application. The laboratory setup of the sensor platform has a reading range of 3.4 meters which is in comparison to commercial available Gen 2 tags. The laboratory platform has an average power consumption of 2.1 μW operating at 3 V, which together with a printed battery gives an estimated lifetime for data logging of several years. The proposed RFID platform provides a tradeoff between, communication performance, compatibility with international standards, and flexibility in on-package customization including type and number of sensors. The proposed architecture separates the high-performance communication circuit and the low-frequency sensor interface logic. In the future, the sensor interface maybe integrated using printed logics to further enhance the flexibility and low-ost customization features of the architecture

Keyword
Radio frequency identification (RFID); sensor platform; surveillance application
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-12548 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2011.2155055 (DOI)000304164900016 ()2-s2.0-80055054917 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of RFID based sensor platform for packaging surveillance applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of RFID based sensor platform for packaging surveillance applications
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications, RFID-TA 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 27-31 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work a two-chip Battery-Assisted Passive (BAP) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based sensor platform is evaluated for two different packaging surveillance applications. The results show that the sensor platform easily can be tailored to be used with different types of sensors to achieve the wanted solution, such as, shock, tilt and tamper evidence sensors and detectors. For the tilt sensor solution the sensor platform have a battery lifetime up to 3.3 years when being powered by a battery with an energy capacity of 33 mAh.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
RFID; Sensor platform; Surveillance application
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13338 (URN)10.1109/RFID-TA.2011.6068611 (DOI)2-s2.0-82155192676 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-145770027-9 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
2011 2nd IEEE RFID Technologies and Applications Conference, RFID-TA 2011, Collocated with the 2011 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Millimeter Wave Integration Technologies, IMWS 2011; Sitges; 15 September 2011 through 16 September 2011
Available from: 2011-03-02 Created: 2011-03-02 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
5. Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 12, no 6, 1901-1905 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the design and the manufacture of an inkjet printed resistive type humidity sensor on paper are reported. After having been exposed to humidity above a given threshold level, the resistance of the sensor decreases substantially and remains at that level even when thehumidity is reduced. It is possible to deduce the humidity level by monitoring the resistance. The main benefit of the printed sensor presented in this case is in relation to its very low production costs. It has also been shown that both the ink type and this paper combination used prove to be crucial in order to obtain the desired sensor effect. More research is required in order to fully understand the humidity sintering effect on the nano particle ink and the role of the substrate. However, the observed effect can be put to use in printed humidity sensors which possess a memoryfunction. The sensor can be used in various applications for environmental monitoring, for example, in situations where a large number of inexpensive and disposable humidity sensors are required which are able to detect whether they have been subjected to high humidity. This could be the checking of transportation conditions of goods or monitoring humidity within buildings. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

Keyword
Humidity transducers; inkjet printing; nanoparticles; sintering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14305 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2011.2182044 (DOI)000303400500016 ()2-s2.0-84860505067 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-08-15 Created: 2011-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
6. Printed write once and read many sensor memories in smart packaging applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printed write once and read many sensor memories in smart packaging applications
Show others...
2011 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 9, 1759-1767 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A horizontal printed Write Once Read Many (WORM) resistive memory has been developed for use in wireless sensortags targeting single event detection in smart packaging applications. The WORM memory can be programmed using a 1.5 V printedbattery. An alternative programming method is to use chemical sintering which allows the development of exposure-time triggeredsingle event tags that can be accessed wirelessly. The new WORM memory has very low losses in the ON-state which allows directintegration into antenna structures.A sensor tag that utilizes the WORM memory functionality and the well established Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)communication standard has been outlined. Both active and fully passive sensor tag solutions have been proposed.The role of printed electronics in smart packaging applications has been reviewed and discussed. Important enabling factors forthe future development have been highlighted, such as the need for hierarchical design and test tools, better printed interconnecttechnologies as well as better components that allow communication with existing information and communication technology (ICT)standards. This is illustrated and underlined by the presented smart packaging concept demonstrators.

Keyword
Flexible structures, printed sensors, telemetry, Grippers, Packaging, Programming, Resistance, Silver, Substrates, Switches
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13339 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2010.2095496 (DOI)000293710700002 ()2-s2.0-79960982087 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-03-02 Created: 2011-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
7. Characterization of moisture sensor based on printed Carbon-Zinc energy cell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of moisture sensor based on printed Carbon-Zinc energy cell
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics - Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, 82-85 p., 1596492Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work we present a simple printed moisture sensor fabricated using electronic inks on a multilayer paper structure. The sensor is based on a Carbon-Zinc type energy cell and provides power to a readout electronic circuit when activated by moisture. The sensors are based on a number of our filed patents according to which the sensor is used for both event detection and as a power source for the processing electronics. Typical applications are moisture and leakage detection in buildings, water pipe lines, smart packages and health care systems such as smart incontinence sensors. As the detector is triggered, it powers up an electronic circuit (polymer based or silicon based) that starts communication with the alarm server. In the simplest systems a sound or a light alarm is started to alert the user. In this work we present a characterization of some critical parameters of the sensor such as power driving capability, linearity, internal memory effects and saturation. In addition, we examine a specific application, when sensor is used as defrosting alarm for surveillance of frozen articles during transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Keyword
RFID, Printed sensors, Moisture detection
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3324 (URN)10.1109/POLYTR.2005.1596492 (DOI)000240653100016 ()2-s2.0-33847182049 (Scopus ID)3268 (Local ID)0-7803-9553-0 (ISBN)3268 (Archive number)3268 (OAI)
Conference
Polytronic 2005: 5th International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics; Warsaw; Poland; 23 October 2005 through 26 October 2005
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-03 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
8. Remote Moisture Sensing utilizing Ordinary RFID Tags
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Moisture Sensing utilizing Ordinary RFID Tags
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, 308-311 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper presents a concept where pairs of ordinary RFID tags are exploited for use as remotely read moisture sensors. The pair of tags is incorporated into one label where one of the tags is embedded in a moisture absorbent material and the other is left open. In a humid environment the moisture concentration is higher in the absorbent material than the surrounding environment which causes degradation to the embedded tag’s antenna in terms of dielectric losses and change of input impedance. The level of relative humidity or the amount of water in the absorbent material is determined for a passive RFID system by comparing the difference in RFID reader output power required to power up respectively the open and embedded tag. It is similarly shown how the backscattered signal strength of a semi-active RFID system is proportional to the relative humidity and amount of water in the absorbent material. Typical applications include moisture detection in buildings, especially from leaking water pipe connections hidden beyond walls. Presented solution has a cost comparable to ordinary RFID tags, and the passive system also has infinite life time since no internal power supply is needed. The concept is characterized for two commercial RFID systems, one passive operating at 868 MHz and one semi-active operating at 2.45 GHz.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007
Series
IEEE Sensors, ISSN 1930-0395 ; 10
Keyword
RFID, Moisture Sensor
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3987 (URN)000254563600080 ()2-s2.0-48349112137 (Scopus ID)4421 (Local ID)978-1-4244-1261-7 (ISBN)4421 (Archive number)4421 (OAI)
Conference
6th IEEE Sensors Conference, Oct 28-31, 2007, Atlanta
Available from: 2008-11-14 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
9. System integration of electronic functions in smart packaging applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System integration of electronic functions in smart packaging applications
Show others...
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, Vol. 2, no 10, 1723-1734 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A system integration scheme relevant for smart packaging applications is presented. Recent advances in printed electronics, radio frequency identification tag production, and standardization of communication protocols are factors that increase the design freedom for new applications. As in all new technology fields, the first products are expected to appear in the high-cost segment attracting early adopters in the form of niche products. A reasonable assumption is that these products will come from hybridization of different types of technologies. Such a scenario is likely since no technology solution available can provide all features that these types of applications demand. There is a need of standard solutions for hybridization of silicon devices and printed (or foil-type) components. Conductive ink technology is a powerful tool for hybridization and customization of large-area electronics, providing 3-D integration and large-area customization. However, high-performance communication and advanced processing demand the use of silicon. Smart hybridization solutions allow combination of the best from both worlds. This paper analyzes the requirements on hybridization technologies suitable for smart packaging applications and provides design examples on integration of intrusion surveillance solutions for cellulose-based packaging applications. It shows that even though the current hybridization technologies are far from optimal, they can provide a considerable design freedom and system performance. © 2011-2012 IEEE.

Keyword
Large area sensors; printed electronics; smart packaging
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-14306 (URN)10.1109/TCPMT.2012.2204056 (DOI)000309729400020 ()2-s2.0-84867210457 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2011-08-15 Created: 2011-08-15 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved

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