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A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2489-0688
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2012 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, 18-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Elsevier, 2012. Vol. 284, 18-29 p.
Keyword [en]
airborne particles, railway, wear, brake pad, brake block
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37516DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2012.01.016ISI: 000303639400002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84861692320OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-37516DiVA: diva2:434168
Note

QC 20120528

Available from: 2012-03-07 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the investigation of wear particles in rail transport started in late-1910s, the high mass concentration of these particles has raised worries among researchers concerned with air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because of lack of relevant knowledge. This thesis provides applicable information for the airborne wear particles in rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristics such as diameter size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology of particles were investigated in field tests and laboratory tests.The effects on particle characterisations from different operational conditions in the field tests, and applying different braking materials, conducting tests in different applied loads or sliding velocities in the laboratory tests were studied. The main advantage of conducting laboratory tests was to focus on studying particles from one source. The possibility of repetition, using high sensitive instruments and conducting tests at low costs are the other advantages of laboratory studies. Paper A describes how a pin-on-disc machine was used to reproduce similar real operational conditions during mechanical braking in a train. The results were validated by comparing the field tests results with the laboratory studies. The particles morphology and size distribution were also studied.Paper B presents a summary of field tests results. The effects of curve negotiating and applying braking in different real conditions were investigated with an on-board measurement.The element composition of the particles and their potential sources were also investigated outside of the particles morphologies.Paper C presents comprehensive results from laboratory studies on airborne particles from different braking materials. The differences in the particle characteristics in similar test conditions were attributable to different material compositions and dominant wear mechanisms. A new index was introduced in this paper and is suggested to be used as a qualitative factor with regard to the airborne wear particle emission rate.Paper D is a review of the recent studies of exhaust emission and non-exhaust emission from rail vehicles. A summary of results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions are reviewed in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 45 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:11
Keyword
airborne, railway, brake, block
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Transport; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35244 (URN)978-91-7501-056-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-08-30, B242, KTH, Brinellvägen 83, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
JVG F6521
Note

QC 20110812

Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2013-09-20Bibliographically approved
2. Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the investigation of wear particles from rail transport started in the late 1910s, the high mass concentrations of these particles have prompted concern among researchers interested in air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because relevant knowledge is still missing. This thesis provides knowledge of airborne wear particles originating from rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristic parameters, such as size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology, were investigated in the field and in laboratory tests. We also discuss means to mitigate non-exhaust emissions, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various test set-ups in the seven appended journal papers:Paper A reviews recent studies of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from rail vehicles. The results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions presented in this literature are summarized in this paper.Paper B summarizes the results of field tests we conducted. The effects of curve negotiation and braking under different real conditions were investigated in a field test in which on-board measurements were made. The elemental composition and morphology of the particles emitted and their potential sources were also investigated.Paper C describes how a pin-on-disc machine can be used to reproduce real operating conditions during mechanical train braking in a controlled laboratory setting. The results were validated by comparing the field test results with the results of laboratory studies.Paper D presents comprehensive results of laboratory studies of airborne particles from different braking materials. A new index is introduced in this paper, which can be used as a quantitative metric for assessing airborne wear particle emission rates.Paper E describes the effects of using various friction modifiers and lubricants on the characteristics of airborne particles from wheel–rail contact under lubricated and unlubricated conditions.Paper F reports work to simulate thermoelastic instability in the cast-iron braking material. We simulated the fluctuation of the flash temperature by considering the temperature dependency of the material properties and the transformation of the contact state due to thermomechanical phenomena and wear.Paper G reviews new full- and sub-scale measurements of non-exhaust emissions from ground transport. The advantages and disadvantages of on-board measurements, pin-on-disc tests, dynamometer tests, and test rig studies are discussed in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 37 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2013:11
Keyword
Airborne, brake block, brake pad, railway, subway, TEI, wheel–rail, wear
National Category
Tribology
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131372 (URN)978-91-7501-881-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131025

Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved

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