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A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. (KTH railway group)
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2012 (English)In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, 95-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Sage Publications, 2012. Vol. 226, no 1, 95-109 p.
Keyword [en]
airborne particles, elemental content, morphology, rail transport
National Category
Tribology Applied Mechanics Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37515DOI: 10.1177/0954409711408774ISI: 000299485900008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84858320471OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-37515DiVA: diva2:434164
Projects
F6521
Note

QC 20120226.

SAGE Best Paper in 2012

Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2013-11-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the investigation of wear particles in rail transport started in late-1910s, the high mass concentration of these particles has raised worries among researchers concerned with air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because of lack of relevant knowledge. This thesis provides applicable information for the airborne wear particles in rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristics such as diameter size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology of particles were investigated in field tests and laboratory tests.The effects on particle characterisations from different operational conditions in the field tests, and applying different braking materials, conducting tests in different applied loads or sliding velocities in the laboratory tests were studied. The main advantage of conducting laboratory tests was to focus on studying particles from one source. The possibility of repetition, using high sensitive instruments and conducting tests at low costs are the other advantages of laboratory studies. Paper A describes how a pin-on-disc machine was used to reproduce similar real operational conditions during mechanical braking in a train. The results were validated by comparing the field tests results with the laboratory studies. The particles morphology and size distribution were also studied.Paper B presents a summary of field tests results. The effects of curve negotiating and applying braking in different real conditions were investigated with an on-board measurement.The element composition of the particles and their potential sources were also investigated outside of the particles morphologies.Paper C presents comprehensive results from laboratory studies on airborne particles from different braking materials. The differences in the particle characteristics in similar test conditions were attributable to different material compositions and dominant wear mechanisms. A new index was introduced in this paper and is suggested to be used as a qualitative factor with regard to the airborne wear particle emission rate.Paper D is a review of the recent studies of exhaust emission and non-exhaust emission from rail vehicles. A summary of results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions are reviewed in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. 45 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:11
Keyword
airborne, railway, brake, block
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Transport; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35244 (URN)978-91-7501-056-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-08-30, B242, KTH, Brinellvägen 83, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
JVG F6521
Note

QC 20110812

Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2013-09-20Bibliographically approved
2. Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the investigation of wear particles from rail transport started in the late 1910s, the high mass concentrations of these particles have prompted concern among researchers interested in air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because relevant knowledge is still missing. This thesis provides knowledge of airborne wear particles originating from rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristic parameters, such as size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology, were investigated in the field and in laboratory tests. We also discuss means to mitigate non-exhaust emissions, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various test set-ups in the seven appended journal papers:Paper A reviews recent studies of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from rail vehicles. The results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions presented in this literature are summarized in this paper.Paper B summarizes the results of field tests we conducted. The effects of curve negotiation and braking under different real conditions were investigated in a field test in which on-board measurements were made. The elemental composition and morphology of the particles emitted and their potential sources were also investigated.Paper C describes how a pin-on-disc machine can be used to reproduce real operating conditions during mechanical train braking in a controlled laboratory setting. The results were validated by comparing the field test results with the results of laboratory studies.Paper D presents comprehensive results of laboratory studies of airborne particles from different braking materials. A new index is introduced in this paper, which can be used as a quantitative metric for assessing airborne wear particle emission rates.Paper E describes the effects of using various friction modifiers and lubricants on the characteristics of airborne particles from wheel–rail contact under lubricated and unlubricated conditions.Paper F reports work to simulate thermoelastic instability in the cast-iron braking material. We simulated the fluctuation of the flash temperature by considering the temperature dependency of the material properties and the transformation of the contact state due to thermomechanical phenomena and wear.Paper G reviews new full- and sub-scale measurements of non-exhaust emissions from ground transport. The advantages and disadvantages of on-board measurements, pin-on-disc tests, dynamometer tests, and test rig studies are discussed in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. 37 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2013:11
Keyword
Airborne, brake block, brake pad, railway, subway, TEI, wheel–rail, wear
National Category
Tribology
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-131372 (URN)978-91-7501-881-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20131025

Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved

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