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Electrolyte-Gated Organic Thin-Film Transistors
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Organic Electronics)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There has been a remarkable progress in the development of organic electronic materials since the discovery of conducting polymers more than three decades ago. Many of these materials can be processed from solution, in the form as inks. This allows for using traditional high-volume printing techniques for manufacturing of organic electronic devices on various flexible surfaces at low cost. Many of the envisioned applications will use printed batteries, organic solar cells or electromagnetic coupling for powering. This requires that the included devices are power efficient and can operate at low voltages.

This thesis is focused on organic thin-film transistors that employ electrolytes as gate insulators. The high capacitance of the electrolyte layers allows the transistors to operate at very low voltages, at only 1 V. Polyanion-gated p-channel transistors and polycation-gated n-channel transistors are demonstrated. The mobile ions in the respective polyelectrolyte are attracted towards the gate electrode during transistor operation, while the polymer ions create a stable interface with the charged semiconductor channel. This suppresses electrochemical doping of the semiconductor bulk, which enables the transistors to fully operate in the field-effect mode. As a result, the transistors display relatively fast switching (≤ 100 µs). Interestingly, the switching speed of the transistors saturates as the channel length is reduced. This deviation from the downscaling rule is explained by that the ionic relaxation in the electrolyte limits the channel formation rather than the electronic transport in the semiconductor. Moreover, both unipolar and complementary integrated circuits based on polyelectrolyte-gated transistors are demonstrated. The complementary circuits operate at supply voltages down to 0.2 V, have a static power consumption of less than 2.5 nW per gate and display signal propagation delays down to 0.26 ms per stage. Hence, polyelectrolyte-gated circuits hold great promise for printed electronics applications driven by low-voltage and low-capacity power sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 62 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1389
Keyword [en]
Organic electronics, Thin-film transistor, Organic semiconductor, Polymer, Electrolyte, Polyelectrolyte
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69636ISBN: 978-91-7393-088-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-69636DiVA: diva2:432465
Public defence
2011-08-26, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-15 Created: 2011-07-08 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low-Voltage Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Gated via a Proton Conductor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Voltage Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Gated via a Proton Conductor
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2007 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 1, 97-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low operating voltages for p-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can be achieved by using an electrolyte as the gate insulator. However, mobile anions in the electrolyte can lead to undesired electrochemistry in the channel. In order to avoid this, a polyanionic electrolyte is used as the gate insulator. The resulting OFET has operating voltages of less than 1 V (see figure) and shows fast switching (less than 0.3 ms) in ambient atmosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley Online, 2007
Keyword
Field-effect transistors, polymer ¿ Photolithography ¿ Polyelectrolytes ¿ Polymers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37442 (URN)10.1002/adma.200600871 (DOI)35829 (Local ID)35829 (Archive number)35829 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
2. Downscaling of Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Polyelectrolyte Gate Insulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Downscaling of Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Polyelectrolyte Gate Insulator
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2008 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 20, no 24, 4708-4713 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A polyelectrolyte is used as gate insulator material in organic field-effect transistors with self-aligned inkjet printed sub–micrometer channels. The small separation of the charges in the electric double layer at the electrolyte-semiconductor interface, which builds up in tens of microseconds, provides a very high transverse electric field in the channel that effectively suppresses short-channel effects at low applied gate voltages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley Online, 2008
Keyword
Nanotechnology, Organic electronics, Organic field-effect transistors, Polyelectrolytes, Printed electronics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43272 (URN)10.1002/adma.200801756 (DOI)73282 (Local ID)73282 (Archive number)73282 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
3. Low-Voltage Ring Oscillators Based on Polyelectrolyte-Gated Polymer Thin-Film Transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Voltage Ring Oscillators Based on Polyelectrolyte-Gated Polymer Thin-Film Transistors
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2010 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 1, 72-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A polyanionic electrolyte is used as gate insulator in top-gate p-channel polymer thin-film transistors. The high capacitance of the polyelectrolyte film allows the transistors and integrated circuits to operate below 1.5 V. Seven-stage ring oscillators that operate at supply voltages down to 0.9 V and exhibit signal propagation delays as low as 300 µs per stage are reported.

Keyword
organic electronics, oscillators, polyelectrolytes, thin-film transistors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53026 (URN)10.1002/adma.200901850 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-01-14 Created: 2010-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Complementary Circuits Operating at Low Power and Voltage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Complementary Circuits Operating at Low Power and Voltage
2011 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 40, 4684- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, polyanionic and polycationic electrolytes are used as gate insulators in p- and n-channel thin-film transistors, respectively. These material combinations are motivated by that the mobile ions in the electrolytes will be attracted to the oppositely charged gate electrodes when the transistors are operated in the accumulation mode. The electronic charges in the semiconductor channels will thus be balanced by the polyions, which are effectively immobile and cannot penetrate into the semiconductor bulk and cause electrochemical doping.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
Keyword
Organic electronics, Conjugated polymers, Polyelectrolytes, Thin-film transistors, Oscillators
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69638 (URN)10.1002/adma.201101757 (DOI)000297009000014 ()
Note
Funding agencies|EU| 212311 |Swedish Government (Advanced Functional Materials)||Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (OPEN)||Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation||Onnesjo Foundation||Available from: 2011-07-08 Created: 2011-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
5. Fiber-Embedded Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors for e-Textiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fiber-Embedded Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors for e-Textiles
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2009 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 5, 573-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrolyte-gate organic field-effect transistors embedded at the junction of textile microfibers are demonstrated. The fiber transistor operates below I V and delivers large current densities. The transience of the organic thin-film transistors current and the impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the channel is formed in two steps.

Keyword
Conducting polymers, electronic textile, fiber transistor, field-effect transistor
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16982 (URN)10.1002/adma.200802681 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-01 Created: 2009-02-27 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
6. A Water-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Water-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistor
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2010 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 23, 2565-2569 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-dielectric-constant insulators, organic monolayers, and electrolytes have been successfully used to generate organic field-effect transistors operating at low voltages. Here, we report on a device gated with pure water. By replacing the gate dielectric by a simple water droplet, we produce a transistor that entirely operates in the field-effect mode of operation at voltages lower than 1V. This result creates opportunities for sensor applications using water-gated devices as transducing medium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2010
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58247 (URN)10.1002/adma.200904163 (DOI)000279711100014 ()
Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Herlogsson, Lars

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