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Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro.

This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.

In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA.

The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 75 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 683
Keyword [en]
Dietary fat, Fatty acids, Serum fatty acid composition, Linoleic acid, Stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase, SCD-1, Inflammation, C-reactive protein, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Isoprostanes, Prostaglandins, Obesity, Epidemiology, Dietary intervention, Metabolic syndrome
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Immunology in the medical area Endocrinology and Diabetes Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156074ISBN: 978-91-554-8112-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-156074DiVA: diva2:432322
Public defence
2011-09-14, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-07-11 Last updated: 2011-12-06
List of papers
1. Serum fatty acid composition and indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity are associated with systemic inflammation: longitudinal analyses in middle-aged men
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum fatty acid composition and indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity are associated with systemic inflammation: longitudinal analyses in middle-aged men
2008 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 99, no 6, 1186-1189 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Altered fatty acid (FA) composition is related to insulin resistance and CVD. One possible mediator may be inflammation, but longitudinal data relating FA composition to inflammation taking insulin resistance into account are limited. We investigated the long-term association between FA composition and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in a large population-based cohort study in 767 men followed for 20 years. The association between FA composition in serum cholesteryl esters at age 50 and CRP concentrations at age 70 was investigated using linear regression. In addition, desaturase activities (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), Delta 5- and Delta 6-desaturase) were estimated using FA product-to-precursor ratios. Insulin resistance was measured directly at follow-up by euglycaemic clamp. After adjusting for confounders (smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, obesity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) CRP concentrations were inversely associated with the proportion of 18:2n-6 (P=0.002) and positively associated with 16:1n-7 (P=0.008), 18: 1n-9 (P=0.0003), 20:5n-3 (P=0.04) and estimated SCD-1 (P=0.005) and Delta 6-desaturase (P=0.02) activities. After adding insulin resistance to the model, 18: 1n-9, 18:2n-6 and SCD-1 remained significant predictors of CRP. A FA composition indicating low intake of 18:2n-6, high intake of SFA and high SCD-1 activity is, in a Swedish population of middle-aged men, associated with CRP concentrations 20 years later, even independently of obesity and insulin resistance.

Keyword
C-reactive protein, fatty acids, SCD-1, inflammation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17694 (URN)10.1017/S0007114507871674 (DOI)000255955500006 ()18062827 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-08-15 Created: 2008-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Relationships between serum fatty acid composition and multiple markers of inflammation and endothelial function in an elderly population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between serum fatty acid composition and multiple markers of inflammation and endothelial function in an elderly population
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2009 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 203, no 1, 298-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA) composition in serum has been associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), but associations with other markers of inflammation and endothelial function, e.g. adhesion molecules are unknown. We recently suggested a possible role of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in inflammation. This study investigates the associations between serum FA composition, including SCD-1 index, and various inflammatory and endothelial function markers. METHODS: 264 Swedish men and women aged 70 years participated in this cross-sectional population-based study. FA composition was measured in serum cholesteryl esters and was correlated to inflammatory markers (CRP, interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, vascular cellular adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, L-selectin, interferon-gamma, and monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1), using linear regression analysis. SCD-1 activity was estimated by FA product-to-precursor ratio (16:1/16:0). RESULTS: Serum FA composition was significantly associated with CRP and E-selectin but not with other inflammatory markers. After adjusting for BMI, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and lipid-lowering therapy, the proportion of palmitoleic acid and SCD-1 index were positively correlated with CRP concentrations (P=0.003 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: A FA composition reflecting high intake of saturated fat and a high SCD-1 index is independently related to CRP concentrations, but not to other markers of inflammation and endothelial function in this population of elderly men and women. Given the absent association between FA composition and the other markers, CRP may be the preferable marker to use when investigating potential relationships between FAs and low-grade inflammation.

Keyword
Fatty acids, Inflammation, Endothelial function, SCD-1, C-reactive protein, Adhesion molecules
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-103687 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.06.020 (DOI)000264510700045 ()18687433 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-05-20 Created: 2009-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study
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2010 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 9, 1357-1362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be implicated in these conditions. We investigated the impact of four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality on 8-iso-PGF2α (a major F2-isoprostane and oxidative stress indicator), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major PGF2α metabolite and marker of cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a 12-week parallel multicentre dietary intervention study (LIPGENE), 417 volunteers with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of the four diets: two high-fat diets (38 % energy (%E)) rich in SFA or MUFA and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets (28 %E) with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC) 1·24 g/d of very long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α were determined by RIA and adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. Serum concentration of CRP was measured by ELISA. Neither concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α nor those of CRP differed between diet groups at baseline (P>0·07) or at the end of the study (P>0·44). Also, no differences in changes of the markers were observed between the diet groups (8-iso-PGF2α, P = 0·83; 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, P = 0·45; and CRP, P = 0·97). In conclusion, a 12-week dietary fat modification did not affect the investigated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among subjects with the MetS in the LIPGENE study.

Keyword
Dietary fat; Oxidative stress; Inflammation; Metabolic syndrome; LIPGENE study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133408 (URN)10.1017/S000711451000228X (DOI)000284015300012 ()20569506 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Dietary fat modification and liver fat content in abdominal obesity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary fat modification and liver fat content in abdominal obesity
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156073 (URN)
Available from: 2011-08-02 Created: 2011-07-11 Last updated: 2011-11-10

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