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Developing Interprofessional Competence: Theoretical and Empirical Contributions
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Different professions meet and work together in teams every day in health and social care. In order to idenUiy and deliver the best quality of care for the patient, the teamworkers need to be both professionally and interprofessionally competent. How can higher education prepare teamworkers to be both professionillly and interprofcssionally competent? This thesis seeks to contribute theoretically and empirically to this issuc. A starting point for interprofessional education (WE) worldwide was when WHO presented a document entitled "Leaming Together to Work Together for Bdter Health". The basic idea in this strateg)' was that it is favourable for undergraduilte students and the development of their own professionill identity to experience other professions in health and sodal sectors as earlyas during their undcrgraduate studies. Inherent in this scheme is that the various professions will work together in practice. Thc overall winner in this new thinking about education and professionai prLlctice would be the patient. One of the Hrst systematic attempts to organize IPE academically was initiated in 1986 at the Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) at Linköping University in Sweden. The "Linköping Model" has now yielded 25 yeilrs of practical experience and development of IPE curricula.

Aims: The overall aims of this thesis we.re to define, describe and measure effects and outcomes of interprofessional education/learning.

Methods: In the research papers theoretical, aualitative and quantitative methods have been used.

Results: The newly registered medical doctors educated at the FHS at Linköping University and exposed to WE and PBL reported more confidence (p < 0.0001) that their lIndergraduate studies had given them interprofessional skilIs and abilities to collaborate with other professions than medical students from all other medical faculties in Sweden. Nurses who hild been exposed to interprofessional curricula during their undergraduate education ilt FHS reported to greater extent (p = 0.003) that they were prepared to work as a nurse. Furthermore, they also reported to a greater extent (p < 0.0001) that their undergraduate education hild prepared them to work with other healt care professions. Other findings in this thesis wcre that female tudents in generill and nursing students had a more positive view of interprofessional learning and were more open-minded about collaboration with other professions. Only to a minor extent did exposure to a more extensive interprofessional curriculum promote a positive attitude towards teamwork.

Conclusions: A major challenge to modern health care is the need for more interprofessional teamwork to improve the safety and quality of patient-centred care. This thesis indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. , 89 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1189
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69603ISBN: 978-91-7393-350-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-69603DiVA: diva2:429676
Public defence
2011-06-09, Hälsans Hus Universitetssjukhuset, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-07-05 Created: 2011-07-05 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Twenty years experiences of interprofessional education in Linkoping--ground-breaking and sustainable.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Twenty years experiences of interprofessional education in Linkoping--ground-breaking and sustainable.
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 23, no 2, 121-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pioneering and ground-breaking effort to organize interprofessional education (IPE) was initiated in 1986 at the Faculty of Health Sciences at Linkoping University in Sweden. The so-called "Linkoping IPE model" has now yielded practical experience and development of curricula for over 20 years. The basic idea of this model is that it is favorable for the development of students' own professional identity to meet other health and social professions already into their undergraduate studies. Interprofessional learning is a process over time that requires several integrated stages to gain interprofessional competence, i.e., the skills required to work together interprofessionally in practice. We believe that defined IPE modules early in the curriculum combined with student-training ward placement as the final module is an encouraging example of how to implement undergraduate IPE among health science students. It is strengthened by problem based learning (PBL) in small groups and student-centered learning. Based on these experiences, this paper aims to contribute to the discussion on how to implement and achieve the aims of IPE and to keep it sustainable. It is not a description of "how to do it" but rather a summarizing of our experiences for successful performance of IPE. The article presents how the Linkoping model was developed, the outcomes, experiences and some outlines for future challenges.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18995 (URN)10.1080/13561820902728984 (DOI)19225972 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-06-07 Created: 2009-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. How to think about interprofessional competence: A metacognitive model
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 26, no 2, 85-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different professions meet and work together in teams every day in health and social care. To identify and deliver the best quality of care for the patient, teamwork should be both professionally and interprofessionally competent. How can enhanced education prepare teamworkers to be both professionally and interprofessionally competent? To achieve interprofessional skills and design effective interprofessional curricula, there is a need for metacognitive frameworks focusing on the relationship between theories and the problem-solving process as well as the structure and content of professional competence. The aim of this article is to discuss the need for shared metacognitive structures/models as a tool for securing successful interprofessional learning and developing personal, professional and interprofessional competence to improve the quality of care. A metacognitive model for interprofessional education and practice is presented in this article. This model has been developed as a tool for analyzing professional competence on three levels: individual, team and organization. The model comprises seven basic components of professional competence and the way they are related and interact. Examples of how this metacognitive model can be used in the early, middle and late stages in interprofessional education are given.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2012
Keyword
Collaborative competence, interprofessional education, qualitative method, shared problem-solving
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75898 (URN)10.3109/13561820.2011.644644 (DOI)000300680100003 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Faculty of Health Sciences at Linkoping University, Sweden||Available from: 2012-03-16 Created: 2012-03-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07
3. Does interprofessional education jeopardize medical skills?
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 21, no 5, 573-576 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11690 (URN)10.1080/13561820701412335 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: Tomas Faresjö, Margaretha Wilhelmsson, Staffan Pelling, Lars-Ove Dahlgren and Mats Hammar, Does interprofessional education jeopardize medical skills?, 2008, Journal of Interprofessional Care, (21), 5, 573-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820701412335. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, an informa businessAvailable from: 2008-09-01 Created: 2008-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13
4. Nurses with IPE curricula during training think they are better prepared to work with other health professions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nurses with IPE curricula during training think they are better prepared to work with other health professions
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today interprofessional education is spread throughout the world. In  Sweden only one of the existing nursing programmes has an IPE curriculum on several levels during the training.

The aim of this study was to examine how nurses who recently graduated from universities with IPE or non-IPE curricula perceive the importance of different educational goals and whether they found themselves prepared for their profession, and especially for collaboration with other professions.

Three universities with different commitments to interprofessional education were studied. We used a survey with eight different targets: communication skills, co-operation with other professions, problem solving capability, self-directed learning skills, whether their education has prepared them to work professionally, to perform research, to take care of acute ill patients, to work preventively and working as a nurse. The participants were asked if their undergraduate education had prepared them for these targets and if they perceived that the targets were important goals for their education.

A main result in this study was that nurses who had recently graduated from the IPEuniversity perceived to a greater extent that their undergraduate training had prepared them to work together with other professions in comparison with nursing students from non-IPE universities.

Keyword
Interprofessional education, evaluation, curricula.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76639 (URN)
Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
5. Are female students in general and nursing students more ready for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are female students in general and nursing students more ready for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare?
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2011 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 11, no 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Interprofessional Education (IPE) is now spreading worldwide and many universities are now including IPE in their curricula. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not such student characteristics as gender, previous working experience in healthcare, educational progress and features of the learning environment, such as educational programmes and curriculum design, have an impact on their open-mindedness about co-operation with other professions. Methods: Medical and nursing students at two Swedish universities were invited to fill in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Totally, 955 students were invited and 70.2% (n = 670) participated in the study. A factor analysis of the RIPLS revealed four item groupings (factors) for our empirical data, but only one had sufficient internal consistency. This factor was labelled "Team Player". Results: Regardless of the educational programme, female students were more positive to teamwork than male students. Nursing students in general displayed more positive beliefs about teamwork and collaboration than medical students. Exposure to different interprofessional curricula and previous exposure to interprofessional education were only to a minor extent associated with a positive attitude towards teamwork. Educational progress did not seem to influence these beliefs. Conclusions: The establishment of interprofessional teamwork is a major challenge for modern healthcare. This study indicates some directions for more successful interprofessional education. Efforts should be directed at informing particularly male medical students about the need for teamwork in modern healthcare systems. The results also imply that study of other factors, such as the students personality, is needed for fully understanding readiness for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare. We also believe that the RIPL Scale still can be further adjusted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69917 (URN)10.1186/1472-6920-11-15 (DOI)000291362100001 ()
Note
Original Publication: Margareta Wilhelmsson, Sari Ponzer, Lars-Ove Dahlgren, Toomas Timpka and Tomas Faresjö, Are female students in general and nursing students more ready for teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in healthcare?, 2011, BMC Medical Education, (11), 15, . http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-11-15 Licensee: BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08

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