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Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Since the investigation of wear particles in rail transport started in late-1910s, the high mass concentration of these particles has raised worries among researchers concerned with air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because of lack of relevant knowledge. This thesis provides applicable information for the airborne wear particles in rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristics such as diameter size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology of particles were investigated in field tests and laboratory tests.The effects on particle characterisations from different operational conditions in the field tests, and applying different braking materials, conducting tests in different applied loads or sliding velocities in the laboratory tests were studied. The main advantage of conducting laboratory tests was to focus on studying particles from one source. The possibility of repetition, using high sensitive instruments and conducting tests at low costs are the other advantages of laboratory studies. Paper A describes how a pin-on-disc machine was used to reproduce similar real operational conditions during mechanical braking in a train. The results were validated by comparing the field tests results with the laboratory studies. The particles morphology and size distribution were also studied.Paper B presents a summary of field tests results. The effects of curve negotiating and applying braking in different real conditions were investigated with an on-board measurement.The element composition of the particles and their potential sources were also investigated outside of the particles morphologies.Paper C presents comprehensive results from laboratory studies on airborne particles from different braking materials. The differences in the particle characteristics in similar test conditions were attributable to different material compositions and dominant wear mechanisms. A new index was introduced in this paper and is suggested to be used as a qualitative factor with regard to the airborne wear particle emission rate.Paper D is a review of the recent studies of exhaust emission and non-exhaust emission from rail vehicles. A summary of results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions are reviewed in this paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 45 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:11
Keyword [en]
airborne, railway, brake, block
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Transport; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35244ISBN: 978-91-7501-056-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-35244DiVA: diva2:426189
Presentation
2011-08-30, B242, KTH, Brinellvägen 83, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
JVG F6521
Note

QC 20110812

Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2011-06-22 Last updated: 2013-09-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs
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2011 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, 93-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
railway brake pads, airborne particles, wear
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37510 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2011.04.013 (DOI)000297902500015 ()2-s2.0-82455208926 (Scopus ID)
Note

Selected papers from 14th Nordic Symposium on Tribology, NORDTRIB 2010. Updated from Submitted to Published.

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Wear. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in WEAR, VOL 273, ISSUE 1, (17 June 2011), DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2011.04.013.

QC 20111221

Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train
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2012 (English)In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, 95-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Sage Publications, 2012
Keyword
airborne particles, elemental content, morphology, rail transport
National Category
Tribology Applied Mechanics Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; Järnvägsgruppen - Gröna tåget; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37515 (URN)10.1177/0954409711408774 (DOI)000299485900008 ()2-s2.0-84858320471 (Scopus ID)
Projects
F6521
Note

QC 20120226.

SAGE Best Paper in 2012

Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2013-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials
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2012 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, 18-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
airborne particles, railway, wear, brake pad, brake block
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37516 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2012.01.016 (DOI)000303639400002 ()2-s2.0-84861692320 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20120528

Available from: 2012-03-07 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review
2013 (English)In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 43, no 23, 2211-2244 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Particle emissions are a drawback of rail transport. This work is a comprehensive presentation of recent research into particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are considered when examining particle characteristics such as  PM10, and PM2.5 concentration levels, size, morphology, composition, as well as adverse health effects, current legislation, and available and proposed solutions for reducing such emissions. High concentration levels in enclosed rail traffic environments are reported and some toxic effects of the particles. We find that only a few limited studies have examined the adverse health effects of non-exhaust particle emissions and that no relevant legislation exists. Thus further research in this area is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
Airbone particles, Brake dust, Exhaust, Non-exhaust, Railways, Subway, Wear
National Category
Tribology Other Environmental Engineering Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37518 (URN)10.1080/10643389.2012.685348 (DOI)000326353100001 ()2-s2.0-84880206310 (Scopus ID)
Note

This is an electronic version of an article published in Critical reviews in environmental science and technology. Critical reviews in environmental science and technology is available online at: www.tandfonline.com.

Updated from submitted to published.

QC 20130116

Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2011-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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