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Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9559-0004
Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9392-9059
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2011 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 4, no 5, 741-757 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today's HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 4, no 5, 741-757 p.
Keyword [en]
battery testing, hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV), lithium ion battery
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34677DOI: 10.3390/en4050741ISI: 000291050600003ScopusID: 2-s2.0-79957673703OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-34677DiVA: diva2:422631
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20110613

Available from: 2011-06-13 Created: 2011-06-13 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of a Novel Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Testing on Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Novel Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Testing on Heavy-Duty Vehicles
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing demands for lower environmental impact from vehicles, including heavy-duty vehicles, have driven several vehicle manufacturers to consider adding hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV’s) to the product portfolio. Present research on batteries for HEV’s is mainly focused on lithium-ion battery chemistries, since lithium-ion batteries has the most promising technical potential compared to other types of batteries. However, the uncertainty regarding battery lifetime combined with a high battery cost can have a negative impact on large scale commercialisation of heavy-duty hybrid vehicles in the near future.

A large part of present lithium-ion battery research is focused on new materials, but there is also research focusing on ageing of already established lithium-ion battery chemistries. Cycle ageing of batteries often includes complete charging and discharging of batteries or the use of standardized test cycles. Battery cycling in real HEV applications is however quite different compared to this kind of laboratory testing, and real life testing on vehicles is a way of verifying the soundness of laboratory ageing.

The aim of this study was to develop a test method suitable for real life testing of lithium-ion batteries for heavy-duty HEV-usage, with the purpose of investigating the correlation of battery ageing and usage in real life applications. This concept study includes both cell level battery cycling and performance testing on board vehicles. The performance tests consist of discharge capacity measurements and hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests. The main feature of this test equipment is that it is designed to be used on conventional vehicles, emulating an HEV environment for the tested battery. The functionality of the equipment was verified on a heavy-duty HEV with satisfying results. Results from real life testing of 8 batteries using the developed test equipment on four conventional heavy-duty trucks shows that the concept of comparing battery ageing with battery usage has a most promising potential to be used as a tool when optimizing battery usage vs. lifetime. Initial results from this real life study shows significant differences in state of charge (SOC) and power distributions between cycled batteries, but so far only small differences in ageing. Lithium-ion batteries of the type lithium manganese spinel/lithium titanate (LMO/LTO) were used in this study.

Abstract [sv]

Ökande krav på minskad miljöpåverkan från fordon, inklusive tunga fordon, har drivit flera fordonstillverkare till att addera hybridiserade fordon till produktportföljen. Forskning på hybridfordonsbatterier är idag huvudsakligen inriktad på litiumjonbatterikemier, vilken har den mest lovande tekniska potentialen jämfört med andra typer av batterikemier. Det finns idag en risk att osäkerheten kring litiumjonbatteriers livslängd i kombination med en hög batterikostnad kan ha en negativ inverkan på en storskalig kommersialisering av tunga hybridfordon inom den närmsta framtiden.

En stor del av batteriforskningen är inriktad på nya material, men det finns även forskning som fokuserar på åldring av redan etablerade litiumjonbatterikemier. Vid åldringsprov används ofta standardiserade testcykler eller cykler där batterierna blir fullständigt laddade och urladdade. Cykling av batterier i verkliga förhållanden skiljer sig dock från den typen av laboratorietester och provning på fordon är därför ett sätt att kontrollera att laboratorieprovning ger relevanta resultat gällande åldring.

Syftet med denna studie var att utveckla en testmetodik lämplig för provning av litiumjonbatterier för tunga hybridfordon i verklig drift, med syfte att undersöka kopplingen mellan batteriers åldrande och hur det används. Detta koncept inkluderar battericykling på cellnivå och möjligheten att utföra batteriprestandatester på fordon, där prestandatesterna består av kapacitetsprov och pulsprov. Den viktigaste egenskapen hos den utvecklade testmetodiken är att provning sker på konventionella fordon genom att emulera en hybridmiljö för det testade batteriet. Funktionaliteten hos den utvecklade testutrustningen verifierades på en tung hybridlastbil med goda resultat. Resultaten från en fältstudie av 8 batterier på 4 lastbilar där den utvecklade testutrustningen användes påvisar att testmetodiken har en lovande potential att kunna användas som ett verktyg vid optimering av utnyttjandegrad och livslängd för HEV-batterier. De initiala resultaten från denna fältstudie påvisar skillnader i laddningsgradsfördelning och batterieffektfördelning mellan cyklade batterier, men ännu bara små skillnader i åldring. Litiumjonbatterier av typen litiummanganspinel/litiumtitanat (LMO/LTO) användes i denna studie.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. viii, 31 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:58
Keyword
Lithium-ion battery, HEV, field testing, heavy-duty vehicles
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49114 (URN)978-91-7501-192-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-12-15, K2, KTH, Teknikringen 28, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20111205Available from: 2011-12-05 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2014-05-20Bibliographically approved
2. Methods for Testing and Analyzing Lithium-Ion Battery Cells intended for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for Testing and Analyzing Lithium-Ion Battery Cells intended for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries designed for use in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are continuously improved in terms of performance and longevity, but they still have limitations that need to be considered when developing new hybrid vehicles.               

The aim of this thesis has been to study and evaluate potential test and analysis methods suitable for being used in the design process when maximizing lifetime and utilization of batteries in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles.

A concept for battery cell cycling on vehicles has been evaluated. The work included development of test equipment, verification of hardware and software as well as an extended period of validation on heavy-duty trucks. The work showed that the concept has great potential for evaluating strategies for battery usage in hybrid vehicles, but is less useful for accelerated aging of battery cells.                            

Battery cells encapsulated in flexible packaging material have been investigated with respect to the durability of the encapsulation in a demanding heavy-duty hybrid truck environment. No effect on water intrusion was detected after vibration and temperature cycling of the battery cells.                   

Aging of commercial battery cells of the type lithium manganese oxide - lithium cobalt oxide / lithium titanium oxide (LMO-LCO/LTO) was investigated with different electrochemical methods to gain a deeper understanding of the origin of performance deterioration, and to understand the consequences of aging from a vehicle manufacturer's perspective. The investigation revealed that both capacity loss and impedance rise were largely linked to the positive electrode for this type of battery chemistry.                          

Postmortem analysis of material from cycle-aged and calendar-aged battery cells of the type LMO-LCO/LTO and LiFePO4/graphite was performed to reveal details about aging mechanisms for those cell chemistries. Analysis of cycle-aged LMO-LCO/LTO cells revealed traces of manganese in the negative electrode and that the positive electrode exhibited the most severe aging. Analysis of cycle-aged LFP/graphite cells revealed traces of iron in the negative electrode and that the negative electrode exhibited the most severe aging.

Abstract [sv]

Litiumjonbatterier anpassade för användning i tunga hybridfordon förbättras kontinuerligt med avseende på prestanda och livslängd men har fortfarande begränsningar som måste beaktas vid utveckling av nya hybridfordon.                

Syftet med denna avhandling har varit att studera och utvärdera potentiella prov- och analysmetoder lämpliga för användning i arbetet med att maximera livslängd och utnyttjandegrad av batterier i tunga hybridfordon.                              

Ett koncept för battericykling på fordon har utvärderats. Arbetet innefattade utveckling av testutrustning, verifiering av hårdvara och mjukvara samt en längre periods validering på lastbilar. Arbetet har visat att konceptet har stor potential för utvärdering av strategier för användandet av batterier i hybridfordon, men är mindre användbar för åldring av batterier.                               

Batterier kapslade i flexibelt förpackningsmaterial har undersökts med avseende på kapslingens hållbarhet i en krävande hybridlastbilsmiljö. Ingen påverkan på fuktinträngning kunde påvisas efter vibration och temperaturcykling av de testade battericellerna.                    

Åldring av kommersiella battericeller av typen litiummanganoxid - litiumkoboltoxid/litiumtitanoxid (LMO-LCO/LTO) undersöktes med olika elektrokemiska metoder för att få en djupare förståelse för prestandaförändringens ursprung och för att förstå konsekvenserna av åldrandet ur en fordonstillverkares användarperspektiv. Undersökningen visade att både kapacitetsförlust och impedanshöjning till största delen var kopplat till den positiva elektroden för denna batterityp.                 

Post-mortem analys av material från cyklade och kalenderåldrade kommersiella battericeller av typen LMO-LCO/LTO och LiFePO4/grafit utfördes för att avslöja detaljer kring åldringsmekanismerna för dessa cellkemier. Vid analys av cyklade LMO-LCO/LTO celler påvisades mangan i den negativa elektroden samt uppvisade den positiva elektroden kraftigast åldring. Vid analys av cyklade LFP/grafit celler påvisades järn i den negativa elektroden samt uppvisade den negativa elektroden kraftigast åldring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. xii, 75 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2014:21
Keyword
Li-ion, battery, hybrid electric vehicle
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145166 (URN)978-91-7595-127-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-03, K2, Teknikringen 28, KTH, Stockholm, 16:06 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35088-1
Note

QC 20140520

Available from: 2014-05-20 Created: 2014-05-13 Last updated: 2014-06-03Bibliographically approved

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