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Potential for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in Grenoble, Delft & Växjö
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
2011 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Sustainable cities is an area that has grown in size over the last couple of years. The SESAC (Sustainable Energy Systems in Advanced Cities) is a EU-project looking at the potential to increase the share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and promote energy efficiency measures in different EU cities. This master thesis is a part of that project.

Specifically, the thesis examines the cities of Grenoble, Delft and Växjö and looks at what measures regarding RES and energy efficiency have been taken historically, both under the SESAC project and otherwise, and assesses the possibility of further measures in the cities. The main RES evaluated are wind power (large scale and urban), solar (PV and thermal) and waste treatment (waste incineration and biogas production). The feasibility of these renewable technologies is evaluated both physically, technically and economically for each city.

Further, the historical and current hinders and promoters in the form of different support schemes and other economic and institutional schemes are summarized for each country and city and the effects of which included in the feasibility calculations. Also, current CO2 emissions of Grenoble, Delft and Växjö are stated and the impact of implementing the measures examined is calculated. A comparison between the three cities is also made and suggestions are made to what they can learn from each other and what synergies there are.   

Results show that the technical potential for RES is sizeable in the cities, as seen in Table 1. Important to note are the differences between the cities. Besides from their differences in population size, ranging from 83 000 (Växjö) and 96 000 (Delft) to 400 000 (Grenoble), available land area as well as climate are very different in the cities, therefore affecting the potential for the RES technologies.


RES potential [GWh]






1,2 (Urban only)


Solar PV




Waste treatment




Table 1. Technical potential of RES in Grenoble, Delft and Växjö

Looking at the economic potential, however, the picture is not as optimistic. The only economically feasible investments of the options in Table 1 are investing in solar PV in Grenoble and Delft (IRR of 0-10%) and wind in Växjö (IRR of 4%). All other investments have negative NPV:s and IRR:s, meaning that either the cost of the technologies must be reduced or more favorable support scheme be introduced in order to make the them profitable.        

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. , 105 p.
Examensarbete INDEK, 2011:45
Keyword [en]
RES, Renewable Energy Sources, Wind, Solar PV, Waste Treatment, Växjö, Delft, Grenoble, Sustainable Cities, Energy
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34442OAI: diva2:421394
Subject / course
Industrial Business Administration and Manufacturing
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Mechanical Engineering
Available from: 2011-06-09 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2011-06-09Bibliographically approved

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