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On Swedish bioenergy strategies to reduce CO2 emissions and oil use
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2011. , 230 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 111
Keyword [en]
bioenergy, climate change mitigation, energy supply security, CO2 emissions, oil use, energy system analysis, transportation, building heating, pulp mills, Sweden
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13868ISBN: 978-91-86694-46-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-13868DiVA: diva2:420012
Public defence
2011-09-06, Q221, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-06-09 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2012-08-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply
2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, 331-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5–7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21–42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15–17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology.

Keyword
Biomass-based energy, Efficient use of biomass, Pulp and paper industry, Mechanical paper, Woodfree paper
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7618 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.05.002 (DOI)000250633600011 ()2-s2.0-34548818154 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2008-12-10 Created: 2008-12-10 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
2. CO2 emission and oil use reduction through black liquor gasification and energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2 emission and oil use reduction through black liquor gasification and energy efficiency in pulp and paper industry
2008 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 52, no 5, 747-763 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examine consequences of new energy technologies in the pulp and paper industry with respect to net CO2 emissions and oil use. The entire production chain from the extraction of primary resources is included in the analysis. Stand-alone production of electricity and transportation fuel from biomass is included to balance the systems compared, so that they produce the same CO2 emission and oil use reductions. The technologies considered are black liquor gasification (BLG) with electricity and motor fuels production in chemical pulp mills and increased energy efficiency in thermomechanical pulp mills. The technologies are evaluated with respect to net CO2 emission, oil use, primary energy use, biomass use and monetary cost. We find that BLG in chemical pulp mills is favourable compared to stand-alone production of fuels and electricity from biomass. It is more efficient to implement BLG with motor fuels production and stand-alone electricity production from biomass, than to implement BLG with electricity production and stand-alone production of motor fuels. Increased energy efficiency in refining of thermomechanical pulp gives CO2 savings more efficiently than stand-alone production of electricity from biomass. Sensitivity analysis indicates that our conclusions are robust with respect to energy and biomass prices and the choice of coal or natural gas for marginal electricity. Newsprint from thermomechanical pulp would require slightly less biomass and have lower costs than paper from chemical pulp, per metric ton (t) product, when the systems are also required to render the same oil use and CO2 emission reductions. Substituting mineral fillers for 25% of the chemical pulp changes the balance in favour of the chemical pulp paper. At an oil price of 40 US$/barrel, all studied pulp and paper mill technology improvements give unchanged or reduced monetary costs also when oil use and CO2 emissions are not balanced with stand-alone bioenergy plants.

National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-7511 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.11.002 (DOI)000254446600007 ()2-s2.0-38949088197 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2008-12-09 Created: 2008-12-09 Last updated: 2011-06-09Bibliographically approved
3. Greenhouse gas and oil use impacts of Fischer-Tropsch diesel and DME production integrated with pulp and paper mills
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas and oil use impacts of Fischer-Tropsch diesel and DME production integrated with pulp and paper mills
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
biorefineries, black liquor gasification, motor biofuels, CO2 emission reduction, oil use reduction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13866 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2011-07-18Bibliographically approved
4. Reduction of CO2 emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of CO2 emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration
2010 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 7, 967-984 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO2 emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO2 emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO2 emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO2 emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO2 emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO2 emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO2 emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO2 emission by 75–88 kg and oil use by 0.99–1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO2 emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO2 emission or oil use reduction is prioritised.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
Biomass strategy; CO2 emission reduction; Reduced oil dependency; Polygeneration; Plug-in hybrid vehicles
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11336 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.02.005 (DOI)000279067000007 ()2-s2.0-77954863173 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2010-03-02 Created: 2010-03-02 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
5. Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, 5671-5691 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO2 emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO2 emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130–330 million €/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million €/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO2 emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost.

Keyword
biomass, climate change, bioenergy, energy security, oil use reduction, efficient use of biomass
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4003 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.05.023 (DOI)000250545300042 ()2-s2.0-34548774488 (ScopusID)4448 (Local ID)4448 (Archive number)4448 (OAI)
Note

VR-Economics

Available from: 2008-11-25 Created: 2008-11-18 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
6. Biomass strategies in Sweden to reduce CO2 emission and oil use in an EU context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass strategies in Sweden to reduce CO2 emission and oil use in an EU context
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
CO2 emission reduction, oil use reduction, bioenergy strategy, Sweden, EU
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-13867 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-30 Created: 2011-05-30 Last updated: 2011-07-18Bibliographically approved

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