Aerosol deposition to coastal forests: a wind tunnel approach
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Aerodynamically rough surfaces of forests provide for efficient air/ canopy exchange of mass, heat and momentum. In that context, the effects of forest edges come into focus, and therefore, coastal-zone forests constitute aparticular concern. Aerosol-sink modelling is of importance to the global-scalecontext, because sink strengths influence the concentration of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, and that concentration, in turn, influences climate. Dry deposition models are insufficient due to a lack of semi-empirical data and because of difficulties in parameterization of the efficiency (E) with which leaves capture aerosols. Quantifications of such parameters promote possibilities for modelling aerosol-sink processes within various canopy layers. This thesis focuses on studies of sea-salt aerosol dry deposition within models of oak canopies exposed to artificially generated aerosols in a wind tunnel. The overall goal is to advance the understanding of deposition processes in forest ecosystems. Aims are to determine capture efficiencies and deposition velocities (Vd) for oak (Quercus robur L.), to investigate E and Vd dependence on aerosol particle size, wind velocity and vegetation structural elements such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), to explore edge effects on deposition, to relate my results to natural situations in the field, and to address modelling applications. This thesis is a result of five studies. The first study is based on developing awind tunnel approach with a main focus on establishing reference conditions.The next step is to quantify E and provide estimates of how E, with respect toa well defined mass-vs-particle-size distribution, varies with wind speed. To that end, a special wash-off technique is developed. Finally, edge effects ondeposition processes are investigated. Results demonstrate that forest ecosystems would experience substantially increased deposition at edges. The findings suggest that field measurements of deposition in the interior of a forest “island” in an otherwise open landscape would underestimate the deposition to the entire forest. Results clearly indicate needs for further research on the effects of LAI on capture efficiency and deposition velocity. The obtained capture efficiencies can be translated into deposition velocities for trees with a specific leaf area. An increase of Vd with increasing wind speed is found, and is consistent with other studies. Results confirm advantages of the wind tunnel approach, including its ability to enable experiments under controlled conditions. However, several problems require that explicit sub-models be developed of wind-speed dependent effects on leaf posture in the aerosol flow field and that gradients in relative humidity close to leaf surfaces need further attention. The results also propose needs for a range of further experimental investigations regarding aerosol deposition across the complete sea-to-land aerodynamic transition.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press , 2011. , 190 p.
Linnaeus University Dissertations, 43/2011
NaCl aerosol, dry deposition, climate change, coastal-zone forest, Quercus robur, wind tunnel, edge effect
Research subject Natural Science, Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-11999ISBN: 978-91-86491-71-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-11999DiVA: diva2:419978
2011-05-06, A137, Landgången 4, Kalmar, 09:30 (English)
Sørensen, Lise Lotte, Docent
Wiman, Bo L.B., ProfessorSvenningsson, Birgitta, DocentBergbäck, Bo, Professor
List of papers