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Pipes, Progress, and Poverty: Social and Technological Change in Urban Water Provision in Kenya and Uganda 1895-2010
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0611-7512
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xiv, 118 p.
Series
TRITA-HOT, ISSN 0349-2842 ; 2063
National Category
History of Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34076ISBN: 978-91-7415-071-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-34076DiVA: diva2:419023
Public defence
2011-06-10, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Entreplan, KTH, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20110525

Available from: 2011-05-25 Created: 2011-05-25 Last updated: 2015-02-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Evolution of Urban Water and Sanitation in East Africa from a Public Goods Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Evolution of Urban Water and Sanitation in East Africa from a Public Goods Perspective
2005 (English)In: African Water Histories: Transdisciplinary Discourses / [ed] Tempelhoff, Johann W. N., Vanderbijlpark, South Africa: Vaal Triangle Faculty, North-West University , 2005, 317-345 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vanderbijlpark, South Africa: Vaal Triangle Faculty, North-West University, 2005
National Category
History of Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6364 (URN)0-620-34742-2 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20101122

Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2016-02-25Bibliographically approved
2. A heritage of un-sustainability?: Reviewing the origin of the Large-Scale Water and Sanitation system in Kampala, Uganda
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A heritage of un-sustainability?: Reviewing the origin of the Large-Scale Water and Sanitation system in Kampala, Uganda
2006 (English)In: Environment & Urbanization, ISSN 0956-2478, E-ISSN 1746-0301, Vol. 18, no 2, 369-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the evolution of the piped water and sewer system in Kampala, Uganda, between 1920 and 1950, and considers the influences this had on the city's later development. Large-scale systems for water and sanitation are associated with an inertia that makes them slow to adapt to a new economic, social or environmental context. It is important to know the history of such systems in order to understand issues of sustainability today. This article shows how the piped water and sewerage systems were introduced to serve mainly the more affluent groups in society. Although the systems were economically and socially sustainable in the colonial context, inherent features of the systems made universal service coverage problematic from an economic point of view. Policy makers need to acknowledge the historic influence and the inertia of systems in order to address current shortcomings in water and sanitation provision, and create sustainable and equitable service provision.

Keyword
Colonial, History, Sanitation, Technology, Urban, Water
National Category
History of Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6365 (URN)10.1177/0956247806069618 (DOI)000241825300007 ()2-s2.0-33749417314 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20150623

Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved
3. Pipes and Politics: A century of change and continuity in Kenyan urban water supply
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pipes and Politics: A century of change and continuity in Kenyan urban water supply
2008 (English)In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 46, no 1, 133-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Major institutional reforms are currently under way to improve the performance of the public water sector in Kenya. However, a historical perspective is needed in order to achieve sustainable improvements that will also benefit the urban poor. This article seeks to provide such a perspective, applying a cross-disciplinary and socio-technical approach to urban water supply over the last century, in which institutions, organisations and technology are seen to interact with political, economic and demographic processes. Despite a series of reforms over the years, the socio-technical structure of the urban water sector in Kenya has shown a remarkable stability since the 1920s, and into the 1980s. However, the sustainability of the public service systems has been eroded since independence, due to changes in the institutional framework surrounding the systems, while exclusive standards and technological choices have essentially been preserved from the colonial era. Current sector reform must create incentives for addressing technology choices and service standards in order to provide public water services also for the urban poor.

Keyword
governance approach, institutional framework, performance assessment, policy reform, service provision, sustainability, urban area, water management, water planning, water supply
National Category
History of Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6366 (URN)10.1017/S0022278X07003102 (DOI)000253782400006 ()2-s2.0-38949103397 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20150623

Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved
4. East African Water Regimes: The Case of Kenya
Open this publication in new window or tab >>East African Water Regimes: The Case of Kenya
2009 (English)In: Evolution of the Law and Politics of Water, Springer , 2009, 105-120 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter outlines the evolution of water regimes in East Africa since pre-colonial times with a special focus on Kenya. It discusses how institutions and organizations for managing water resources and domestic water supply have been successively developed and fused with previous regimes. Institutions introduced as part of the colonization process in the early 1900s have partly-but not completely-replaced customary water regimes. After independence, new public objectives and evolving social structures prompted changes in the water regime, but institutions and organizations established under colonial rule were largely kept intact. The provision of services has not expanded as planned and many people still lack reasonable access to water and sanitation services. Currently, reforms are carried out to improve performance of the sector. Although the emerging water regime may lead to an increased cost recovery, it provides no guarantee for improved and sustainable service for the poor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2009
Keyword
East Africa, history, water institutions, water policy, water resources
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34073 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4020-9867-3_7 (DOI)2-s2.0-84892327066 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20150721

Available from: 2011-05-25 Created: 2011-05-25 Last updated: 2015-07-21Bibliographically approved
5. Discrimination by Default: The Post-colonial Heritage of Urban Water Provision in East Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrimination by Default: The Post-colonial Heritage of Urban Water Provision in East Africa
2009 (English)In: Water and Sanitation Services, London: Earthscan , 2009, 259-275 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Earthscan, 2009
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34074 (URN)9781844076567 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20110525

Available from: 2011-05-25 Created: 2011-05-25 Last updated: 2016-06-15Bibliographically approved
6. From "All for some" to "Some for all"?: A historical geography of pro-poor water provision in Kampala
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From "All for some" to "Some for all"?: A historical geography of pro-poor water provision in Kampala
2013 (English)In: Journal of Eastern African Studies, ISSN 1753-1055, E-ISSN 1753-1063, Vol. 7, no 1, 40-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the historical mechanisms and geographical factors that have formed the current structure of urban water provision in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. The formation of the urban geography of Kampala dates back to the early colonial period. The high- and middle-income earners have settled on the hills while the poorest part of the population lives in the low-lying areas, dispersed as pockets of unplanned and informal settlements. Public services are underdeveloped in these informal pockets. The government has pledged to improve services for the poor and this article analyses whether the efforts made are likely to lead to a lasting change, seen in a longer time perspective. The public water supply in Kampala has ever since its opening in 1930 focused on the middle- and high-income groups while poor people have been marginalised. Water provision to low-income groups has continued to rely on standpipes since the colonial period. There has also been organisational continuity, with a single centralised organisation in charge of urban water supply in all larger towns. Institutional changes, such as the new connection policy from 2004, have perpetuated the emphasis on middle- and high-income groups. This article argues that the traditional focus on private connections is creating a barrier for expansion of services in informal areas. Pre-paid water distribution, which was tried already in the 1920s, has in recent years seen a revival. This technology offers an important avenue for rectifying inequalities of public services that has been reproduced since the colonial period.

Keyword
Uganda, water supply, history, informal areas, pro-poor, service provision
National Category
Human Geography History of Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-111716 (URN)10.1080/17531055.2012.708543 (DOI)000315350400003 ()2-s2.0-84874496006 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20150623

Available from: 2013-01-14 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2015-06-23Bibliographically approved

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