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CXCL8 regulation of urothelial cells by lactobacilli
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7957-0310
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

CXLC8 is an important cytokine that attracts immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages during infections. This cytokine is released from many cell types including epithelial cells such as the urothelial cells found in the urinary tract. CXCL8 release is dramatically increased when urothelial cells meet bacteria such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are the main cause of urinary tract infections. CXCL8 is needed during the course of the infection; nevertheless, high levels have been associated with chronic inflammation and cancer, and are in those cases considered detrimental to health. Lactobacillus is a diverse group of lactic acid bacteria and a major component of our microbiota. Many are also commercially available as probiotics, and even if they have shown effectiveness as preventative supplements for both infections and supporting bowel regularity, much is left to learn about their mode of action. We know that many probiotics are immunomodulators and affect immune cell function, especially in immune cells. However, less is known about their effect on epithelial cell immune function and the possible variation immunomodulation between different Lactobacillus species.   

 

Results

To test the CXCL8 modulating abilities of Lactobacillus, numerous species were used for screening urothelial cell CXCL8 release. We wanted to assess the role of lactobacilli on resting cells, but also how they affect CXCL8 in cells that are already stimulated with E. coli similar to the case of a urinary tract infection. We found that most lactobacilli had a marginal effect on cytokine release in resting cells not challenged with E. coli. However, E. coli-challenged cells subsequently exposed to lactobacilli showed a significant increase or decrease of CXCL8 levels. Many of the tested species changed cytokine levels severalfold in both directions. Comparing the effects between species using evolutionary trees based on 16S rRNA did not reveal any grouping of effects based on the genetic similarity between the different taxa.

 

Conclusion

Many lactobacilli have the ability to alter the levels of secreted CXCL8, especially in E. coli-challenged cells. Interestingly, we could not group the effect on CXCL8 based on their evolutionary relationship suggesting that the effects on CXCL8 is analogous in its nature and have evolved independently in many of the tested species. However, as for probiotic activity which is often strain specific, CXCL8 modulating features are also likely to be associated with individual strains. Although we cannot explain the big differences between bacteria, both up- and downregulation of CXCL8 is interesting from a therapeutical perspective. Many pathogens, including uropathogenic E. coli actively inhibit signals that lead to cytokine release and immune migration, and it can in those cases be beneficial to increase CXCL8, whereas decreased cytokine levels might be advantageous in other conditions such as chronic inflammation.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011.
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15687OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-15687DiVA, id: diva2:418951
Available from: 2011-05-24 Created: 2011-05-24 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved

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