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Fabrication and Characterization of Photonic Crystals, Optical Metamaterials and Plasmonic Devices
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. (Nanophotonics)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

 Nanophotonics is an emerging research field that deals with interaction between light and matter in a sub-micron length scale. Nanophotonic devices have found an increasing number of applications in many areas including optical communication, microscopy, sensing, and solar energy harvesting especially during the past two decades. Among all nanophotonic devices, three main areas, namely photonic crystals, optical metamaterials and plasmonic devices, gain dominant interest in the photonic society owning to their potential impacts. This thesis studies the fabrication and characterization of three types of novel devices within the above-mentioned areas. They are respectively photonic-crystal (PhC) surface-mode microcavities, optical metamaterial absorbers, and plasmonic couplers.

The devices are fabricated with modern lithography-based techniques in a clean room environment. This thesis particularly describes the critical electron-beam lithography step in detail; the relevant obstacles and corresponding solutions are addressed. Device characterizations mainly rely on two techniques: a vertical fiber coupling system and a home-made optical transmissivity/reflectivity setup. The vertical fiber coupling system is used for characterizing on-chip devices intended for photonic integrations, such as PhC surface-mode cavities and plasmonic couplers. The transmissivity/reflectivity setup is used for measuring the absorbance of metamaterial absorbers.

This thesis presents mainly three nanophotonic devices, from fabrication to characterization. First, a PhC surface-mode cavity on a SOI structure is demonstrated. Through a side-coupling scheme, a system quality-factor of 6200 and an intrinsic quality-factor of 13400 are achieved. Such a cavity can be used as ultra-compact optical filter, bio-sensor and etc. Second, an ultra-thin, wide-angle metamaterial absorber at optical frequencies is realized. Experimental results show a maximum absorption peak of 88% at the wavelength of ~1.58μm. The ultra-fast photothermal effect possessed by such noble-metal-based nanostructure can potentially be exploited for making better solar cells. Finally, we fabricated an efficient coupler that channels light from a conventional dielectric waveguide to a subwavelength plasmonic waveguides and vice versa. Such couplers can combine low-loss dielectric waveguides and lossy plasmonic components onto one single chip, making best use of the two.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xi, 58 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2011:09
Keyword [en]
Photonic crystals, metamaterials, plasmonics
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33600ISBN: 978-91-7501-014-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-33600DiVA: diva2:416407
Public defence
2011-06-07, sal C1, Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110524Available from: 2011-05-24 Created: 2011-05-11 Last updated: 2011-05-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Photothermal fusion of gold nanoparticles in a plasmonic metamaterial
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photothermal fusion of gold nanoparticles in a plasmonic metamaterial
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(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34031 (URN)
Note
QS 20120328Available from: 2011-05-24 Created: 2011-05-24 Last updated: 2012-03-28Bibliographically approved
2. Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 7, 074510- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate the absorption properties of designed metamaterial absorbers in the near-infrared wavelength regime. For the rectangular-shaped case, we demonstrate its polarization dependent absorbance at various incident angles. For each polarization, the absorbance is insensitive to the incident angle (up to 60 degrees) and a maximum absorbance of 0.95 is obtained. Of particular interest we experimentally observe an absorption peak corresponding to a high-order resonance at 60 degrees with an absorbance of 0.68 excited by the TM polarization. For the square-shaped case, we show its polarization-independent absorption property. A maximum absorbance around 0.65 is achieved at normal incidence and it remains high for incidence angles up to 50 degrees.

Keyword
NEGATIVE-INDEX METAMATERIALS
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33714 (URN)10.1063/1.3573495 (DOI)000289949000141 ()2-s2.0-79955373807 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20110520Available from: 2011-05-20 Created: 2011-05-16 Last updated: 2014-02-03Bibliographically approved
3. High-Q photonic crystal surface-mode cavities on crystalline SOI structures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Q photonic crystal surface-mode cavities on crystalline SOI structures
2010 (English)In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 283, no 11, 2461-2464 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-Q side-coupled surface-mode cavities in two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals on crystalline silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures are demonstrated. One of the surface-mode cavities has the measured system Q factor and intrinsic Q factor of 6200 and 13,400, respectively. The experimental results show that the value of system Q factor is ten times and the intrinsic Q factor six times higher than those of similar structures on amorphous SOI structures, respectively, due to the intrinsic material loss is much lower for crystalline silicon. The Q factors of cavities can be further improved by spin-on-glass overlayers, for increasing the structural symmetry. After the spin-on-glass process, the system Q factor and the intrinsic Q factor become nearly twice higher. Meanwhile, the drop wavelengths are largely red-shifted. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27850 (URN)10.1016/j.optcom.2010.02.011 (DOI)000277824200029 ()2-s2.0-77950295905 (ScopusID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note
QC 20110113Available from: 2011-01-13 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2011-05-24Bibliographically approved
4. High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial
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2010 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 25, 251104- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High absorption efficiency is particularly desirable at present for various microtechnological applications including microbolometers, photodectors, coherent thermal emitters, and solar cells. Here we report the design, characterization, and experimental demonstration of an ultrathin, wide-angle, subwavelength high performance metamaterial absorber for optical frequencies. Experimental results show that an absorption peak of 88% is achieved at the wavelength of similar to 1.58 mu m, though theoretical results give near perfect absorption. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3442904]

Keyword
absorption coefficients, metamaterials, nanofabrication, nanoparticles, plasmonics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27284 (URN)10.1063/1.3442904 (DOI)000279168100004 ()2-s2.0-77954042922 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20101213Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2011-05-24Bibliographically approved
5. Efficient coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient coupler between silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguide
2011 (English)In: OPTOELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND DEVICES V / [ed] oyama, F; Chuang, SL; Duan, GH; Huang, Y, 2011, Vol. 7987Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate an efficient coupler between a silicon waveguide and a hybrid plasmonic waveguide for the wavelength range 1460-1540 nm. Such compact, efficient plasmonic couplers provide a promising platform for integrated photonic circuits.

Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 7987
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33881 (URN)10.1117/12.888661 (DOI)000292740900010 ()2-s2.0-79953012949 (ScopusID)
Conference
Conference on Optoelectronic Materials and Devices V. Shanghai, FL. DEC 08-12, 2010
Note

QC 20110523

Available from: 2011-05-23 Created: 2011-05-20 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved

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