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Modeling and Simulation of Dial-a-Ride and Integrated Public Transport Services
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traditional public transport systems are most often insufficient to provide a good transport service to everyone. Especially, it is not always possible for elderly and disabled persons to use the regular system consisting of timetabled services operating along fixed routes. Normally there is some specific service, often called paratransit, offered to these groups of customers. Such transport services provide better service to these customers, but to a higher cost. This thesis considers planning and evaluation of public transport services that are based on the concept of a dial-a-ride service. This kind of service is suitable for elderly and disabled and often operated as a door-to-door service, where customers are served on demand and rides are coordinated via a call-center. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a modeling system for simulation of dial-a-ride services is presented. It can be used as a tool to study how different ways of operating a dial-a-ride service, affect the performance and efficiency of the service. This system is used to evaluate how algorithmic changes, based on ruin-and-recreate methods, can improve the replanning of already inserted requests, and thereby improve the scheduling. The modeling system is also used to examine the effects of using zone-based distance estimates instead of true, address-based, distances when computing the schedules. The results show that only small differences are found.The second part of the thesis concerns an extension to dial-a-ride services. By combining a dial-a-ride service with a fixed route service, an integrated dial-a-ride service is created, where some part of each journey may be carried out by the fixed route service. An exact mathematical formulation of this problem is presented and it is shown that the formulation is strengthened by valid inequalities, variable substitution and subtour elimination constraints. Simulations of an integrated service are also performed to analyze and evaluate how the attractiveness and operating costs of the service depend on how the demand responsive service is operated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 44 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1379
Keyword [en]
dial-a-ride, simulation, optimization, modeling, paratransit, public transport
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68067ISBN: 978-91-7393-135-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-68067DiVA: diva2:415969
Public defence
2011-06-10, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-11 Created: 2011-05-10 Last updated: 2013-06-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A modeling system for simulation of dial-a-ride services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A modeling system for simulation of dial-a-ride services
2012 (English)In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, Vol. 4, no 1, 17-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a modeling system for simulation of dial-a-ride services. It can be used as a tool for understanding and study how different designs, and different ways to operate a dial-a-ride service, affect the performance and efficiency of the service. The system simulates the operation of a dynamic dial-a-ride service that operates with multiple fleets of vehicles with different capacities, schedules and depots. It can be used to investigate how the setting of service and cost parameters and the design of the service affect the total cost for the operator and level of service for the customer. We describe the different modules in the system and the possible uses of the system. A short simulation study is performed to exemplify how it can be used. In this study the effects of including costs for customer discomfort are evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer, 2012
Keyword
dial-a-ride, optimization, public transport, simulation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68057 (URN)10.1007/s12469-012-0052-6 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-05-09 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2013-08-26Bibliographically approved
2. Improving paratransit scheduling using ruin and recreate methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving paratransit scheduling using ruin and recreate methods
2013 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 36, no 4, 377-393 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we study the effects of using ruin and recreate methods in a replanning phase of a dynamic dial-a-ride problem. Several such methods are proposed, and a modeling system is used to evaluate how they improve the quality of the solutions. We show that simple changes to existing planning methods can increase the efficiency of the service. Two cases, with different forms of costs inflicted on the vehicles, are evaluated and significant improvements are found in both cases. The best results of our study are found with ruin methods based on removal of sequences of requests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
dial-a-ride, public transport, optimization
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68059 (URN)10.1080/03081060.2013.798488 (DOI)000320098900005 ()
Available from: 2011-05-09 Created: 2011-05-09 Last updated: 2013-08-23Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of distance estimation methods in dial-a-ride planning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of distance estimation methods in dial-a-ride planning
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13thInternational Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies,Transportation and Management Science / [ed] Lo, H.P., C.H. Leung and S.M.L Tam, Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong Society of Transportation Studies Ltd. , 2008, 751-759 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Paratransit in form of dial-a-ride service is widely used in Sweden. A main planning system in Sweden uses pre-calculated distance matrices, based on aggregated geographical zones. A trip between two zones is thereby assumed to take a certain time independent of where in the zones the actual pick-up and drop-off points are located. The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of using address-based shortest path calculations instead of zone-based distance estimates. A simulation environment is implemented in C#.Net, based on a standard formulation of the dynamic dial-a-ride problem, and simulations have been performed on historical data from the city of Göteborg. To evaluate the solutions, it is not adequate to evaluate only the objective function value, since a lower estimation of the distances will likely give a lower objective function value. Therefore we also discuss how to evaluate different solutions in other terms than objective function values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong Society of Transportation Studies Ltd., 2008
Keyword
transportation, planning, dial-a-ride
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43892 (URN)75043 (Local ID)978-988-98847-3-4 (ISBN)75043 (Archive number)75043 (OAI)
Conference
The 13th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies, 13-15 December, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2011-05-11Bibliographically approved
4. The Integrated Dial-a-Ride Problem
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Integrated Dial-a-Ride Problem
2009 (English)In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, Vol. 1, no 1, 39-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a formulation of the Integrated Dial-a-Ride (IDARP). This problem is to schedule dial-a-ride requests, where some part of each journey may be carried out by a fixed route service. The IDARP is a generalization of the Dial-a-Ride Problem. An arc-based formulation is proposed, and it is shown how the model can be made easier to solve by arc elimination, variable substitution and the introduction of subtour elimination constraints. Small instances of the IDARP can be solved using an exact solution method, and one such instance is studied. We also describe how input and output data can be created and visualized in a geographic information system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer, 2009
Keyword
public transport, dial-a-ride, optimization, IDARP
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51818 (URN)10.1007/s12469-008-0006-1 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-11-19 Created: 2009-11-19 Last updated: 2013-08-26Bibliographically approved
5. Evaluation of an integrated public transport system: a simulation approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of an integrated public transport system: a simulation approach
2008 (English)In: Archives of Transport, ISSN 0866-9546, Vol. 20, no 1-2, 29-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Integrated public transportation service is a new interesting form of service combining a fixed route service with a demand responsive service. When designing such a service, it is important to analyse and evaluate how the attractiveness and operating costs for the service depend on the type of demand responsive service used, the design parameters related to the fleet of vehicles, the structure of the transportation network and on the personal service commitments made to the passengers. In this paper, we show how simulation can be used to perform these analyses. The performed simulations also give guidelines to help operators of public transport to design the service. The evaluation is made using the LlTRES-2 public transport modelling system. The results show the importance of the design of the demand responsive part of the integrated service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warsaw: Univ. of Technology, Institute of Transport, 2008
Keyword
public transport, simulation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51813 (URN)
Available from: 2009-11-18 Created: 2009-11-18 Last updated: 2013-12-19Bibliographically approved

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