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Att uppmärksamma det väsentliga: Lärares ämnesdidaktiska förmågor ur ett interaktionskognitivt perspektiv
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6859-1420
2011 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen syftar till att belysa lärares ämnesdidaktiska förmågor i naturvetenskap. Jag fokuserar på tre olika förmågor som är centrala för lärare, nämligen lärares professionella seende, deras automatiska agerande samt deras förmåga att berätta narrativ. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten för avhandlingen är det som jag kallar för det interaktionskognitiva perspektivet. Tre olika aspekter av interaktion behandlas, interaktion mellan individen och hennes omgivning, interaktion mellan individen och andra individer samt interaktion mellan två olika kunskapsformer – den deklarerbara och den intuitiva kunskapen – som bearbetas i det explicita respektive det implicita minnessystemet. Modellen om de två minnessystemen är således central i den här avhandlingen och jag behandlar hur dessa båda minnessystem samverkar så att deklarerbara och intuitiva kunskaper tar sig i uttryck i form av förmågor.

Informanterna i de ingående studierna utgörs av såväl lärarstudenter som erfarna lärare som undervisar om, berättar om eller löser problem med ett naturvetenskapligt innehåll, med särskild tyngdpunkt på ekologi. Datainsamlingen har främst bestått i intervjuer, såväl semistrukturerade som stimulated recall-intervjuer. Dessutom har data samlats in genom att undervisning har videofilmats och att informanter har beskrivit sin undervisning i loggböcker.

Resultaten visar att vi kan urskilja tre olika aspekter av lärares professionella seende: uppmärksamma, identifiera och känna igen. Förmågan att uppmärksamma det väsentliga i en komplex miljö, exempelvis att finna en viss typ av gräs bland andra gräs, är starkt förknippad med förmågan att känna igen. Dessa förmågor bygger på intuitiv kunskap och är därmed en långlivad förmåga. Att identifiera, dvs. att kunna sätta ett namn på gräset, är däremot en deklarerbar kunskap som är snabbt avklingande relativt lärtillfället.

Vidare visar resultaten att förmågan att agera automatiskt är starkt situerad och därmed sammanlänkad med lärandemiljön, elevgruppen och det specifika innehållet. Automatiskt agerande bygger på erfarenhet (igenkänning) av en specifik situation vartill ett beteende är kopplat. En lärare behöver inte själv vara medveten om sitt agerande eftersom detta är en intuitiv kunskap.

Den intuitiva kunskapen verkar dessutom vara en viktig del av berättelser. Studenterna kunde upp till ett år efter lärtillfället återberätta grunddragen i en historia. Däremot visade det sig att de exakta vetenskapliga termerna, dvs. den deklarerbara kunskapen, till stor del hade bytts ut mot mer vanligt förekommande termer.

Jag vill poängtera värdet av både intuitiv och deklarerbar kunskap i lärarutbildningen.

Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to investigate the engagement of teachers’ skills in teaching of science. Three different skills are presented, namely teachers’ professional vision, automatic action and the use of narratives. I introduce an interactive cognitive perspective to investigate teachers’ skills as they appear in the interaction between the teacher, the pupils and the learning environment. Furthermore, the interaction between two different forms of knowledge is also a central part of this thesis. These two forms are the declarable and the intuitive knowledge. The declarable knowledge is processed in the explicit memory system and the intuitive knowledge is connected to the implicit memory system. The dual-memory system model is an important starting point for this thesis, in particular, the interaction between the intuitive and declarable knowledge.

Both pre-service student teachers and experienced teachers participated in the studies. They taught, told narratives or solved problems in science. A variety of data collection methods have been used. Among these were interviews, both semi-structured and stimulated recall settings, video recordings from teaching and logbooks about teaching written by the student teachers.

Three different categories of teachers’ professional vision were identified: to discern, to identify and to recognize. To be able to discern critical features in complex environments, the teacher needs to recognize the feature, for example a grass among other types of grass. To discern and to recognize have the same underlying cognitive mechanisms and could be described as intuitive knowledge. The intuitive knowledge is long-lasting. To identify, that is, to be able to label the grass, is a declarable knowledge that is fast degrading.

The ability to act automatically is based on the same cognitive mechanisms as those involved when teacher discern critical features. Automatic action could hence be described as intuitive knowledge. Furthermore, automatic action strongly depends on the situation. A teacher could act without being conscious of his/her own behavior.

The intuitive knowledge seems to be important for the ability to tell narratives. The research suggests that narratives could represent long-lasting knowledge structures (intuitive knowledge), even though the specific scientific terms may degrade fast.

The pupils, the learning environment and the scientific content together form a whole which the teacher needs to constantly react to during teaching situations. In doing so, both intuitive and declarable knowledge are important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 116 p.
Series
Studies in Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1652-5051 ; 40
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67895ISBN: 978-91-7393-169-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67895DiVA: diva2:414137
Public defence
2011-06-01, K1, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Student Teachters' Reasoning Patterns while Solving a Contextualized Task on Thermal Phenomena
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student Teachters' Reasoning Patterns while Solving a Contextualized Task on Thermal Phenomena
2007 (English)In: Journal of Baltic science education, ISSN 1648-3898, Vol. 6, no 3, 44-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study three different patterns of reasoning have been identified: linear, star and combined reasoning. As six student teachers were working on a contextualized task on heat and temperature they showed these different patterns of reasoning during an interview situation. The data was analysed using reasoning maps. The patterns are also discussed in relation to the students- subject matter knowledge in this specific area. There are indications that the reasoning pattern is dependent on what kind of scientific subject matter knowledge the student reveals. Star and combined reasoning make it possible to look at the task from different angles and thereby develop fragmented knowledge into more comprehensive knowledge.

Keyword
science education
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44970 (URN)78790 (Local ID)78790 (Archive number)78790 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
2. Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers’ observational skills in natural ecological learning environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers’ observational skills in natural ecological learning environments
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 34, no 1, 101-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to investigate two expert ecology teachers’ ability to attend to essential details in a complex environment during a field excursion, as well as how they teach this ability to their students. In applying a cognitive dual-memory system model for learning, we also suggest a rationale for their behaviour. The model implies two separate memory systems: the implicit, non-conscious, non-declarative system and the explicit, conscious, declarative system. This model provided the starting point for the research design. However, it was revised from the empirical findings supported by new theoretical insights. The teachers were video and audio recorded during their excursion and interviewed in a stimulated recall setting afterwards. The data were qualitatively analysed using the dual-memory system model. The results show that the teachers used holistic pattern recognition in their own identification of natural objects. However, teachers’ main strategy to teach this ability is to give the students explicit rules or specific characteristics. According to the dual-memory system model the holistic pattern recognition is processed in the implicit memory system as a non-conscious match with earlier experienced situations. We suggest that this implicit pattern matching serves as an explanation for teachers’ ecological and teaching observational skills. Another function of the implicit memory system is its ability to control automatic behaviour and non-conscious decision-making. The teachers offer the students firsthand sensory experiences which provide a prerequisite for the formation of implicit memories that provides a foundation for expertise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2012
Keyword
Ecology education; Teacher actions; Classification; Pattern recognition; Dualmemory system
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67890 (URN)10.1080/09500693.2011.561505 (DOI)000300301400005 ()
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
3. Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories
2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 3, 277-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to investigate the science content remembered by biology students 6 and 12 months after an ecology excursion. The students' memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview. The authors identified three different types of memories: recall, recognition and narratives. The dual memory system model of learning was used to connect recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The results show that the students' re-told narratives were scrambled and sometimes distorted. The students used small fragments to create their story and the next fragment of the story primarily depended on the antecedent unit. It is therefore suggested that in telling a narrative there is a constant interplay between the explicit (recall) and implicit (recognition) memory systems. The scientific terms (recall) were often replaced by everyday terms, indicating that the underlying meaning is not connected to the specific terms.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67892 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2012.656278 (DOI)000318733000004 ()
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
4. Applying the Dual-Memory System Model to Understand Student Teachers’ Development of Professional Vision
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying the Dual-Memory System Model to Understand Student Teachers’ Development of Professional Vision
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article aims to merge two existing models of professional development. The Dreyfus and Dreyfus five-stage model from novice to expert will be merged with the dual-memory system model. The stages from the Dreyfus model has been complemented and explained by the dual memory system model. The new model is then used to investigate student teachers’ professional vision. In doing so, the present study contributes with empirical findings to the model. The results suggest that professional vision is highly situational due to the forming of implicit memories from specific situations. This means that even a student teacher may expose behaviour which is typical for the competent performer. The role of the mentor is also discussed.

Keyword
Dual-memory system model, Professional vision, implicit memory, Student teacher
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67894 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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