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Polyelectrolyte-Based Capacitors and Transistors
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Organic Electronics)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polymers are very attractive materials that can be tailored for specific needs and functionalities. Based on their chemical structure, they can for instance be made electrically insulating or semiconducting with specific mechanical properties. Polymers are often processable from a solution, which enables the use of conventional low-cost and high-volume manufacturing techniques to print electronic devices onto flexible substrates. A multitude of polymer-based electronic and electrochemical devices and sensors have been developed, of which some already has reached the consumer market.

This thesis focuses on polarization characteristics in polyelectrolyte-based capacitor structures and their role in sensors, transistors and supercapacitors. The fate of the ions in these capacitor structures, within the polyelectrolyte and at the interfaces between the polyelectrolyte and various electronic conductors (a metal, a semiconducting polymer or a network of carbon nanotubes), is of outermost importance for the device function. The humidity-dependent polarization characteristics in a polyelectrolyte capacitor are used as the sensing probe for wireless readout of a passively operated humidity sensor circuit. This sensor circuit can be integrated into a printable low-cost passive sensor label. By varying the humidity level, limitations and possibilities are identified for polyelectrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors. Further, the effect of the ionic conductivity is investigated for polyelectrolyte-based supercapacitors. Finally, by using an ordinary electrolyte instead of a polyelectrolyte and a high-surface area (supercapacitor) gate electrode, the device mechanisms proposed for electrolyte-gated organic transistors are unified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1370
Keyword [en]
Organic electronics, Polarization, Polyelectrolyte, Transistor, Polymer, Sensor, Capacitor
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67852ISBN: 978-91-7393-160-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67852DiVA: diva2:413711
Public defence
2011-06-13, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Proton motion in a polyelectrolyte: A probe for wireless humidity sensors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proton motion in a polyelectrolyte: A probe for wireless humidity sensors
2010 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 143, no 2, 482-486 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-cost passive wireless electronic sensor labels glued onto packages are highly desirable since they enable monitoring of the status of the packages for instance along the logistic chain or while stored at a shelf. Such additional sensing feature would be of great value for many producers and vendors, active in e.g. the food or construction industries. Here, we explore a novel concept for wireless sensing and readout, in which the humidity sensitive ionic motion in a polyelectrolyte membrane is directly translated into a shift of the resonance frequency of a resonance circuit. Thanks to its simplicity, the wireless sensor device itself can be manufactured entirely using common printing techniques and can be integrated into a low-cost passive electronic sensor label.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier / ScienceDirect, 2010
Keyword
Humidity sensor, Polyelectrolyte, Printed electronics, Wireless sensor, Resonance, Packaging
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51546 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2009.09.043 (DOI)000274774100004 ()
Note
Original Publication: Oscar Larsson, Xiaodong Wang, Magnus Berggren and Xavier Crispin, Proton motion in a polyelectrolyte: A probe for wireless humidity sensors, 2010, Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, (143), 2, 482-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2009.09.043 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-11-05 Created: 2009-11-05 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved
2. Effects of the Ioinc Currents in Electrolyte-gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of the Ioinc Currents in Electrolyte-gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors
2008 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, Vol. 18, no 21, 3529-3536 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polyelectrolytes are promising materials as gate dielectrics in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Upon gate bias, their polarization induces an ionic charging current, which generates a large double layer capacitor (10-500 µF cm-2) at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The resulting transistor operates at low voltages (<1 V) and its conducting channel is formed in 50 µs. The effect of ionic currents on the performance of the OFETs is investigated by varying the relative humidity of the device ambience. Within defined humidity levels and potential values, the water electrolysis is negligible and the OFETs performances are optimum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2008
Keyword
electrolytes, field-effect transistors, ionic conductivity, organic electronics
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15724 (URN)10.1002/adfm.200701251 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-01 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved
3. Insulator Polarization Mechanisms in Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulator Polarization Mechanisms in Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors
2009 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 19, no 20, 3334-3341 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) hold promise for robust printed electronics operating at low voltages. The polarization mechanism of thin solid electrolyte films, the gate insulator in such OFETs, is still unclear and appears to limit the transient current characteristics of the transistors. Here, the polarization response of a thin proton membrane, a poly(styrenesulfonic acid) film, is controlled by varying the relative humidity. The formation of the conducting transistor channel follows the polarization of the polyelectrolyte, such that the drain transient current characteristics versus the time are rationalized by three different polarization mechanisms: the dipolar relaxation at high frequencies, the ionic relaxation (migration) at intermediate frequencies, and the electric double-layer formation at the polyelectrolyte interfaces at low frequencies. The electric double layers of polyelectrolyte capacitors are formed in 1 µs at humid conditions and an effective capacitance per area of 10 µF cm-2 is obtained at 1 MHz, thus suggesting that this class of OFETs might operate at up to 1 MHz at 1 V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley InterScience, 2009
Keyword
Dielectrics, Ionic conductivity, Organic electronics, Organic field-effect transistors, Polyelectrolytes
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51545 (URN)10.1002/adfm.200900588 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-11-05 Created: 2009-11-05 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved
4. Effect of the Ionic Conductivity on the Performance of Polyelectrolyte-Based Supercapacitors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of the Ionic Conductivity on the Performance of Polyelectrolyte-Based Supercapacitors
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 20, no 24, 4344-4350 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the emerging technology field of printed electronics, circuits are envisioned to be powered with printed energy sources, such as printed batteries and printed supercapacitors (SCs). For manufacturing and reliability issues, solid electrolytes are preferred instead of liquid electrolytes. Here, a solid-state, polyanionic proton conducting electrolyte, poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS:H), is demonstrated for the first time as an effective ion conducting electrolyte medium in SCs with electrodes based on carbon nanotube (CNT) networks. The effect of the ionic conductivity in the PSS:H film of those SCs is studied at different levels of relative humidity (RH) with impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. High capacitance values (85 F g(-1) at 80% RH) are obtained for these SCs due to the extremely high effective electrode area of the CNTs and the enhanced ionic conductivity of the PSS: H film at increasing RH level. The charging dynamics are primarily limited by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte rather than a poor contact between the electrolyte and the CNT electrodes. The use of polyelectrolytes in SCs provides high mechanical strength and flexibility, while maintaining a high capacitance value, enabling a new generation of printable solid-state charge storage devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2010
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-64584 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201001096 (DOI)000285393600016 ()
Available from: 2011-01-28 Created: 2011-01-28 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved
5. Unifying electrochemical and field-effect mechanisms in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unifying electrochemical and field-effect mechanisms in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The combination of electrolytes and organic semiconductors has opened up new opportunities in photonics1, electronics2 and in energy storage3. In most of these devices, the key mechanisms involve the transport of charge carriers (electrons or ions) across the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The formation of an electric double layer (EDL) at this polarized interface is fuzzier than at a metal-electrolyte interface since weak intermolecular interactions in the organic solid favour the penetration of ions4. An EDL established at the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface, defined by a sheet of electronic charge carriers and a sheet of ions, has been proposed recently as the basic mechanism for electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs)5, 6. Here, organic thin film transistors are used as a probe to investigate the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. We demonstrate that the capacitance value of the gate counter electrode dictates the degree of advancement7 of the electrochemical halfreaction (the extent of the reaction) at this interface. This finding unifies the mechanisms proposed for EGOFETs and organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs); and sets the ground description for an electrochemical half-reaction induced entirely by capacitive coupling.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67886 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2015-05-06Bibliographically approved

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