Iron-based materials as tar cracking catalyst in waste gasification
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sweden has changed during the past decades due to national legislation and European Union directives. The former landfills have more or less been abandoned in favour of material recycling and waste incineration. On a yearly basis approximately 2.2 million tonnes waste are incinerated in Sweden with heat recovery and to some extent also with electricity generation, though at a low efficiency. It is desirable to alter this utilisation and instead employ MSW as fuel in a fluid bed gasification process. Then electrical energy may be produced at a much higher efficiency. However, MSW contain about 1 % chlorine in the form of ordinary table salt (NaCl) from food scraps. This implies that the tar cracking catalyst, dolomite, which is normally employed in gasification, will suffer from poisoning if applied under such conditions. Then the tar cracking capacity will be reduced or vanish completely with time. Consequently, an alternative catalyst, more resistant to chlorine, is needed.
Preliminary research at KTH has indicated that iron in its metallic state may possess tar cracking ability. With this information at hand and participating in the project “Energy from Waste” an experimental campaign was launched. Numerous experiments were conducted using iron as tar cracking catalyst. First iron sinter pellets from LKAB were employed. They were reduced in situ with a stream of hydrogen before they were applied. Later iron-based granules from Höganäs AB were tested. These materials were delivered in the metallic state. In all tests the KTH atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier with a secondary catalytic reactor housing the catalytic material was deployed. Mostly, the applied fuel was birch. The results show that metallic iron possesses an intrinsic ability, almost in the range of dolomite, to crack tars. Calculations indicate that iron may be more resistant to chlorine than dolomite. The exploration of metallic iron’s excellent tar cracking capacity led to the innovative manufacture of an iron catalytic tar cracking filter as well as a general knowledge of its tar cracking capacity. This filter with dual functionality would be a general improvement of the gasification process since it among other things would make the process denser.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 73 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:27
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-33043ISBN: 978-91-7415-941-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-33043DiVA: diva2:413107
2011-05-19, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Reimert, Rainer, Prof. Dr.-Ing.
Sjöström, Krister, DocentLiliedahl, Truls, Assistant Prof
QC 201104282011-04-282011-04-272011-04-28Bibliographically approved
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