Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Organophosphates and phthalates in air and dust from indoor environments: Method development and applied measurements
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.

An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.

Comparison of chemical profiles of the organophosphate ester between indoor environments including daycare centers, offices and private homes differed between the types of locations while the phthalate profiles were rather similar. Comparison of concentration levels of these compounds in multi-storey apartment buildings classified as either high or low risk “sick” buildings could not differentiate the two classes of buildings. Further, the studies also points out some potential sources of organophosphate and phthalate esters in these indoor environments.

In general the levels of phthalate esters were consistently higher than the levels of organophosphate esters both in air and in dust. Phthalate and organophosphate esters were also determined in a dust standard reference material; seventeen of the targeted compounds were quantified out of which ten had not previously been reported for this reference material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2011. , 64 p.
Keyword [en]
Organophosphate esters, phthalate esters, air, dust, sampling, method development, GC/MS
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-56677ISBN: 978-91-7447-256-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-56677DiVA: diva2:412137
Public defence
2011-05-26, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2011-05-04 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-09-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Simultaneous selective detection of organophosphate and phthalate esters using gas chromatography with positive ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to indoor air and dust
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simultaneous selective detection of organophosphate and phthalate esters using gas chromatography with positive ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and its application to indoor air and dust
2010 (English)In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 24, no 19, 2859-2867 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A selective and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 14 organophosphate and six phthalate esters using gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. Both of these compound classes are frequently found in the indoor environment due to their use as bulk additives in numerous polymers, consumer products and building materials. GC/MS utilizing positive ion chemical ionisation (PICI) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with isobutane as the reagent gas was found to be the best of the tested methods; it proved superior to electron ionisation (EI) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and to PICI using methane as the reagent gas. The method was applied to indoor air samples collected by active air sampling using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Organophosphates and phthalates were simultaneously determined with method detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.1-47 ng m(-3). For most compounds the MDLs were <= 0.2 ng m(-3), but due to the presence of some of these ubiquitous indoor air pollutants in the blanks, significantly higher MDLs were observed for a few compounds. Finally, the method was also applied in the screening of a much more complex sample matrix, indoor dust.

National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-51663 (URN)10.1002/rcm.4690 (DOI)000282917100011 ()
Note
authorCount :3Available from: 2011-01-12 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved
2. Organophosphate and phthalate esters in air and settled dust – a multi-location indoor study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organophosphate and phthalate esters in air and settled dust – a multi-location indoor study
2011 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 21, no 1, 67-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports the abundance in indoor air and dust of eleven organophosphate esters and six phthalate esters. Both groups of these semi-volatile compounds are widely incorporated as additives into plastic materials used in the indoor environment, thus contributing to indoor exposure to industrial chemicals. Thirty sampling sites representing three different indoor environments (private homes, day care centers, and workplaces) in the Stockholm area, Sweden, were selected to obtain representative concentration profiles in both ambient air and settled dust. Eight of the target organophosphate esters and all six phthalate esters were found in both air and dust samples at all locations. The phthalate esters were more abundant than the organophosphate esters, typically ten times higher total concentrations. Especially interesting were the high levels of tributoxyethyl phosphate in the day care centers, the relatively high levels of chlorinated organophosphate esters in the air of workplaces and the overall high levels of diethylhexyl phthalate in dust. The air concentration profiles of the phosphate esters differed significantly between the three indoor environments, whereas the concentration profiles of the phthalate esters as well as their total concentrations were similar. The correlation between concentrations found in air and in dust was found to be weak.

Keyword
Organophosphate esters, Phthalate esters, Indoor air and settled dust, Solid-Phase Extraction air sampling, GC-MS
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54036 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00684.x (DOI)000285970000008 ()
Available from: 2011-01-25 Created: 2011-01-25 Last updated: 2012-01-20Bibliographically approved
3. Organophosphate and phthalate esters in indoor air: a comparison between multi-storey buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building symptoms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organophosphate and phthalate esters in indoor air: a comparison between multi-storey buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building symptoms
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 13, no 7, 2001-2009 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An extensive study has been conducted of the prevalence of organophosphorous flame retardants/plasticizers and phthalate ester plasticizers in indoor air. The targeted substances were measured in 45 multi-storey apartment buildings in Stockholm, Sweden. The apartment buildings were classified as high or low risk with regard to the reporting of sick building symptoms (SBS) within the project Healthy Sustainable Houses in Stockholm (3H). Air samples were taken from two to four apartments per building (in total 169 apartments) to facilitate comparison within and between buildings. Association with building characteristics have been examined as well as association with specific sources by combining chemical analysis and exploratory uni- and multivariate data analysis. The study contributes to the overall perspective of levels of organophosphate and phthalate ester in indoor air enabling comparison with other studies. The results indicated little or no difference in the concentrations of the target substances between the two risk classifications of the buildings. The differences between the apartments sampled within (inter) buildings were greater than the differences between (intra) buildings. The concentrations measured in air ranged up to 1,200 ng/m3 for organophosphate esters and up to 11,000 ng/m3 for phthalate esters. Results in terms of sources were discerned e.g. PVC flooring is a major source of benzylbutyl phthalate in indoor air.    

Keyword
organophosphate esters, phthalate esters, indoor air, sick building symptoms
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-55357 (URN)10.1039/c1em10152h (DOI)000292984100016 ()
Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2015-09-03Bibliographically approved
4. Organophosphate and phthalate esters in standard reference material 2585 organic contaminants in house dust
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organophosphate and phthalate esters in standard reference material 2585 organic contaminants in house dust
2012 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 402, no 1, 51-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The levels of 22 phthalate diesters (phthalates) and organophosphate triesters (organophosphates) have been investigated in standard reference material 2585 (SRM 2585) "organic contaminants in house dust." Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction on a Florisil adsorbent were used as the extraction and cleanup steps combined with analysis using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion chemical ionization mode. Seven phthalates were detected in the concentration range 1-570 mu g/g. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the major phthalate present at 570 mu g/g. Ten organophosphates were detected in SRM 2585. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate was the predominant organophosphate at 82 mu g/g, and nine organophosphates were determined at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 2.3 mu g/g. Five organophosphates were below the method detection limit, of which two were in level with the procedural blank. The applied extraction and cleanup method was evaluated for the analysis of SRM 2585. The extraction yield was a parts per thousand yen99%, except for tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (97%) and diethyl phthalate (98.5%). The problem of calibration curvature is addressed, and it is shown that the use of deuterated standards improves the analysis. The concentrations of ten organophosphate esters were determined in SRM 2585, and seven of these were compared with existing data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the levels of the seven phthalates esters in SRM 2585 "organic contaminants in house dust.

Keyword
Organophosphate esters, Phthalate esters, Standard reference material 2585, Organic contaminants in house dust
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-65706 (URN)10.1007/s00216-011-5440-2 (DOI)000298749300011 ()
Note

4

Available from: 2011-12-13 Created: 2011-12-13 Last updated: 2015-09-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

FULLTEXT01(834 kB)1787 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 834 kBChecksum SHA-512
56d3d362bb9891c0ac877b0bcd28e590a46a7263738ac1e585d4da42559aac1a3cf2b80f797d340992951f7ef590d2418a1105ddb11e7037ea77b89b21d7b6bb
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergh, Caroline
By organisation
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1787 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 480 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link