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Flexible Authoring of Metadata for Learning: Assembling forms from a declarative data and view model
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media. (Knowledge Management Research group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5222-970X
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the vast amount of information in various formats that is produced today it becomes necessary for consumers ofthis information to be able to judge if it is relevant for them. One way to enable that is to provide information abouteach piece of information, i.e. provide metadata. When metadata is to be edited by a human being, a metadata editorneeds to be provided. This thesis describes the design and practical use of a configuration mechanism for metadataeditors called annotation profiles, that is intended to enable a flexible metadata editing environment. An annotationprofile is an instance of an Annotation Profile Model (APM), which is an information model that can gatherinformation from many sources. This model has been developed by the author together with colleagues at the RoyalInstitute of Technology and Uppsala University in Sweden. It is designed so that an annotation profile can holdenough information for an application to generate a customized metadata editor from it. The APM works withmetadata expressed in a format called RDF (Resource Description Framwork), which forms the technical basis for theSemantic Web. It also works with metadata that is expressed using a model similar to RDF. The RDF model providesa simple way of combining metadata standards and this makes it possible for the resulting metadata editor to combinedifferent metadata standards into one metadata description. Resources that are meant to be used in a learning situationcan be of various media types (audio- or video-files, documents, etc.), which gives rise to a situation where differentmetadata standards have to be used in combination. Such a resource would typically contain educational metadatafrom one standard, but for each media type a different metadata standard might be used for the technical description.To combine all the metadata into a single metadata record is desirable and made possible when using RDF. The focusin this thesis is on metadata for resources that can be used in such learning contexts.One of the major advantages of using annotation profiles is that they enable change of metadata editor without havingto modify the code of an application. In contrast, the annotation profile is updated to fit the required changes. In thisway, the programmer of an application can avoid the responsibility of deciding which metadata that can be edited aswell as the structure of it. Instead, such decisions can be left to the metadata specialist that creates the annotationprofiles to be used.The Annotation Profile Model can be divided into two models, the Graph Pattern Model that holds information onwhat parts of the metadata that can be edited, and the Form Template Model that provides information about how thedifferent parts of the metadata editor should be structured. An instance of the Graph Pattern Model is called a graphpattern, and it defines which parts of the metadata that the annotation profile will be editable. The author hasdeveloped an approach to how this information can be used when the RDF metadata to edit is stored on a remotesystem, e.g. a system that can only be accessed over a network. In such cases the graph pattern cannot be useddirectly, even though it defines the structures that can be affected in the editing process. The method developeddescribes how the specific parts of metadata are extracted for editing and updating when the metadata author hasfinished editing.A situation where annotation profiles have proven valuable is presented in chapter 6. Here the author have taken partin developing a portfolio system for learning resources in the area of blood diseases, hematology. A set of annotationprofiles was developed in order to adapt the portfolio system for this particular community. The annotation profilesmade use of an existing curriculum for hematology that provides a competence profile of this field. The annotationprofile makes use this curriculum in two ways:1. As a part of the personal profile for each user, i.e. metadata about a person. Through the editor, created from anannotation profile, the user can express his/her skill/knowledge/competence in the field of hematology.2. The metadata can associate a learning resource can with certain parts of the competence description, thusexpressing that the learning resource deals with a specific part of the competence profile. This provides a mechanismfor matching learning need with available learning resources.As the field of hematology is evolving, the competence profile will need to be updated. Because of the use ofannotation profiles, the metadata editors in question can be updated simply by changing the corresponding annotationprofiles. This is an example of the benefits of annotation profiles within an installed application. Annotation Profilescan also be used for applications that aim to support different metadata expressions, since the set of metadata editorscan be easily changed.The system of portfolios mentioned above provides this flexibility in metadata expression, and it has successfullybeen configured to work with resources from other domain areas, notably organic farming, by using another set ofannotation profiles. Hence, to use annotation profiles has proven useful in these settings due to the flexibility that theAnnotation Profile Model enables. Plans for the future include developing an editor for annotation profiles in order toprovide a simple way to create such profiles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , viii, 49 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723
Keyword [en]
Metadata, RDF, Semantic Web, metadata editors, metadata authoring
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32818ISBN: 978-91-7415-965-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32818DiVA: diva2:412088
Presentation
2011-05-13, D2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 14:59 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Annotation profiles: Configuring forms to edit RDF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annotation profiles: Configuring forms to edit RDF
2007 (English)In: DCMI '07 Proceedings of the 2007 international conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications: application profiles: theory and practice, 2007, 10-21 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Most of today's generic annotation tools for semantic web metadata (RDF) are designed forexperts. People with no or little knowledge about RDF are therefore forced to use simplified andoften domain-specific tools that work with fixed sets of metadata elements. This paper introducesthe Annotation Profile Model as a configuration mechanism from which annotation tools can beautomatically generated. The intention is to encourage metadata- or domain experts to defineannotation profiles according to metadata vocabularies. This will allow end-users oradministrators to select appropriate annotation profiles for the task at hand, and then an editorwill be provided by the underlying system. This paper discusses the design of the AnnotationProfile Model, which consists of a data-capturing part (the Graph Pattern Model) and apresentation part (the Form Template model). An implementation that can generate both web-based and standalone editors is also introduced.

Keyword
Metadata, Application Profile, RDF
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32783 (URN)2-s2.0-84866239822 (ScopusID)
Conference
International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Singapore, 28-31 August 2007
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-04-19 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
2. An RDF Modification Protocol, based on the needs of editing tools
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An RDF Modification Protocol, based on the needs of editing tools
2009 (English)In: Metadata and Semantics, Post-proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research, MTSR 2007, Corfu Island in Greece, 1-2 October 2007. Springer 2009, Springer, 2009, 191-199 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of RDF on the web is increasing, unfortunately the amount of editing tools suitable for end users without knowledge of technicalities of the language are not so common. We believe that a vital ingredient for the editing tools to flourish is a working remote modification protocol. This will allow editing tools to be developed separately from triple-stores and make them more flexible and reusable. Several initiatives for remote modification exist already but have not gained wide-spread adoption. In this paper we will show that most of them fall short when it comes to edit arbitrary RDF constructs, especially in combination with typical requirements of editing tools. We will first list these requirements, then propose a solution that fulfills them and finally outline an implementation. With this implementation we will also demonstrate how Annotation Profiles, a configuration mechanism for RDF metadata editors, has the additional feature of making modification requests very precise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2009
Keyword
Metadata, remote editing, RDF, SPARQL
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32811 (URN)10.1007/978-0-387-77745-0_18 (DOI)000261355600018 ()2-s2.0-84892784393 (ScopusID)978-038777744-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Metadata and Semantics Research, MTSR 2007, Corfu Island in Greece, 1-2 October 2007
Note

QC 20110426

Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
3. An approach for on-demand e-learning to support knowledge work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An approach for on-demand e-learning to support knowledge work
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of I-KNOW ´07 / [ed] Tochtermann, K. & Maurer, H., Graz, 2007, 289-296 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

he requirements on learning support from knowledge work differ compared totraditional work. Based on those observations an approach for supporting learning inknowledge work is proposed considering requirements from e-learning as well as fromknowledge management. In addition to traditional e-learning, on-demand e-learning takes thecurrent situation of the knowledge worker into consideration to ensure learning support ofknowledge work is proposed. For using a broad variety of resources in on demand e-learning asingle metadata schema for describing seems not sufficient for every organisation. Therefore,application profiles appear adequate for describing resources used in the proposed approach forarranging knowledge elements. Identifying the knowledge workers current situation a learningneed should be derived and to use it afterwards for selecting and delivering knowledgeelements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Graz: , 2007
Keyword
on-demand e-learning, workplace learning, metadata, learning need, work-based learning, knowledge work
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32809 (URN)
Conference
7th International Conference on Knowledge Management, Graz, Austria, September 5-7, 2007
Note

QC 20110426

Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved
4. Using a Hematology Curriculum in a Web Portfolio Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a Hematology Curriculum in a Web Portfolio Environment
2011 (English)In: Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, ISSN 2073-7904, Vol. 3, no 1, 84-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2005 the European Hematology Association developed theEuropean Hematology Curriculum. This was distributed as a printed bookletand the intention was that junior hematologist could use it for personalcompetence development. In the EU-funded project H-net this Curriculum hasbeen adapted into the a web environment by using RDF and placed inside aweb portfolio system. How this is done is further described in this article.Furthermore, the possibilities of reusing the curriculum in ways that was notinitially intended is described, such as describing Learning Resources inside theweb-portfolio system with how they relate to different parts of the curriculum.That way a search for learning resources inside the portfolio by using thecurriculum is enabled. And, since the medical field of hematology is closelyrelated to other medical fields the design of the web-version of the curriculumwas done in a way that builds for possible combination with any othercurriculum in another medical field.

Keyword
Metadata, hematology, portfolio, linked data, semantic web
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32782 (URN)2-s2.0-84866238502 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-04-19 Last updated: 2015-01-20Bibliographically approved

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