Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
Different native starches, modified starches and plant proteins were evaluated as wood adhesives. They were combined with different synthetic polymers in order to achieve improved adhesive properties. The study was divided into two parts: development of starch based adhesive formulations and evaluation of an existing protein based adhesive.
Eight different starches and two different plant proteins were used in the first part. Starch 1 and starch 2 as well as protein 1 and protein 2 were some of the used materials. These materials were dispersed in synthetic polymers such as poly (vinyl acetate) (PVAc), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA). Five different cross-linking agents were also tested.
In the second part of the study, protein 2 was used as a renewable material. It was dispersed in dispersing media 2 and filler 1 was used. In an effort to increase the amount of renewable material in the adhesive composition, six different renewable fillers were examined. Lower pressing temperatures as well as lower amounts of cross-linking agent 1 were evaluated in order to observe their influence on the adhesive properties of the protein based adhesive.
All formulations were characterized by measurement of viscosity, solid content and pH. The adhesive properties of some of the formulations in both parts of the study were characterized according to SS-EN 204:2001 and EN 14257 (WATT 91).
The best results, of the starch based formulations, were obtained when starch 1 and protein 2 were dispersed in dispersing media 2 or dispersing media 7. These formulations in combination with cross-linking agents were classified as D2 and passed the criteria for heat resistance (WATT 91). However, the results were comparable with the reference sample.
It was possible to replace filler 1, totally or partly, in the protein based adhesive with renewable fillers. Protein based adhesive formulations with filler 2 and filler 4, amongst others, showed improvement of the adhesive properties. These formulations passed D3 and D4 – wet criteria and almost passed D4 – boiling criteria. The amount of renewable material in the protein based adhesive was increased from ~32 % to ~56 % in the formulations that obtained the best adhesive properties. The amount of non-petrochemical material was ~67 % in all new formulations as well as in the reference sample.
By decreasing the pressing temperature from 110 °C to 90 °C or by decreasing the amount of cross-linking agent 1 from 15 % to 5 %, a protein based system that passes D3 criteria can be obtained.
2011. , 55 p.