Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
Solutions to the current calamity of fossil fuels are becoming more urgent with each moments passing. It is not news for those in technical professions as well as many others, that reserves of oil are diminishing and prices for petroleum based products are increasing. A most transparent option exists today, and is becoming exploited by many countries worldwide. This solution answers to the title of biofuels, consisting of gases, liquids and even biomass for various energy requirements. Two biofuels in particular hold precedence with regard to transportation fuels, namely biodiesel and ethanol, and have been studied in the following report. The said fuels are produced by transesterification of oils and fermentation of sugar based crops respectively, for use in transport fleets worldwide. Stockholm, Sweden is in the forefront for use of the said fuels in their public transportation sector, with nearly the entire fleet fueled with ethanol. Persistence, extensive research and unprecedented environmental support equate to the success of this fuel, which is used competitively to petroleum diesel, while including reduced environmental impacts. Other cities in Europe also have similar capacities to utilize biofuels, although some have failed to hold to this technology. Troyes, France, the home of CREIDD (Center of Research and Interdisciplinary Studies on Sustainable Development) and UTT (University of Technology of Troyes), has been further studied to produce the relative measures needed for biofuel implementation in this municipality, while generating the impacts toward the environment and municipality in the form of costs, emissions and savings. Surprisingly, and hereafter, it has been concluded that the use of biodiesel, and not ethanol like Stockholm, offers the best course of action for Troyes both economically and environmentally. Cities throughout Europe can follow suit and discover the biofuel most applicable to their locality and promote further sustainability, although the question still arises of whether biofuels are indeed sustainable.
2007. , 90 p.