Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE credits
In this study, energy analysis of Upplands Väsby municipality was carried out with the aim of reducing the CO2 emissions in compliance with Kyoto Protocol. In order to achieve that the inventory of the current fossil fuel use, analysis of possible energy saving measures, and inventory of current potential for biomass production was studied respectively.The annual energy consumption according to different sectors which are mainly housing,transportation, public activities, construction, agriculture, forestry and fishery wasinvestigated and found as 1000 GWh. Depending on the emission factors for each fuel type,corresponding CO2 emissions were calculated. These calculations showed that 85% of thetotal CO2 emissions are caused by oil and diesel which are mainly used in transportation. The emissions from electricity and district heating came out to be negligible compared to transportation because of renewable energy use in production. Thus, depending on the results of energy analyses, the main priority was set as transportation for CO2 emission reduction measures.The intention of Upplands Väsby municipality is first to implement efficient energy use rather than CO2 reduction or the production of the renewable fuels within the municipality. The possible energy efficiency and conservation opportunities were discussed and identified intwo different perspectives; the tactical perspective that will cover the first 3 to 5 years and thestrategical perspective for a longer period of 25 years. For the first years of energy efficiencyprogram, the main objective was set to be reaching some amounts of energy savings by the easiest changes possible and advertising that to the public to gain their support and cooperation in the long term. On the other side, for the strategical perspective, the mainobjective must be reducing the CO2 emissions as much as possible and establishing a sustainable energy system depending on renewable sources.For the production of renewable fuels, biomass was preferred as the energy source as more than half of the Upplands Väsby municipality is covered with forests and farmlands. In the calculations, only the municipally owned lands were taken into consideration and privately owned lands were excluded. Furthermore, out of the land that the municipality owns, the forest lands were excluded from the biomass calculations with an aim of reserving the forests for recreational and natural conservation purposes. In the preliminary estimation in this study,the possible yields of biomass per hectare and year were used to reach the total amount of bioenergy that can be produced. Since growing different kinds of energy crops will result with different yields of dry biomass per hectare and year, the most appropriate crops for the Svealand region were identified depending on the previous researches. The possible amount of bio energy that can be produced was calculated for willow, straw, ley crop, rapeseed, wheatand reed canary grass. As a result, it is seen that whatever the crop is chosen the average yield that can be obtained from the farmlands is around 30 GWh per year.After the energy balance, efficiency options and biomass estimation; the results from thesethree parts were combined and the possible CO2 reduction values for the next 25-30 years were estimated. In order to do that, different scenarios were considered such as replacing fossil fuels with energy from biomass, increasing energy savings and reducing fuel use in transportation. From the fossil fuel replacement scenarios, replacement of heating oil appearsto be the most feasible option since the amount of energy than can be produced from biomass exactly matches the amount of heating oil used in the municipality and it is much easier thandistrict heating and fuel replacements. From energy saving scenarios, the results for electricitysavings are negligible compared to other options as a result of environmentally friendly electricity production in majority of companies in Sweden. Hence buying electricity from supplier companies with lower CO2 emissions gives more reductions in emissions than energysavings. The last scenario, which is reduction of fuel consumption, appears to be the bestoption among the others, because it results in higher CO2 reductions. Advances in technology and growing attention to environmental issues is likely to simplify the application options interms of changing the transportation patterns of the public by encouraging them to use ratherpublic transport or car polls, environmentally friendly cars, and etc. As a result, combiningdifferent scenarios, the maximum amount of CO2 reduction together with energy savings was calculated to be around 26% for Upplands Väsby municipality.This study revealed the deficiencies in organization and systematic data collection in the municipality levels and the need to establish a methodology for inventory and follow-up ofenergy use, production and related environmental effects.In conclusion, the main target of the Upplands Väsby municipality should be implementing amethodology for systematically collecting data on the energy use and CO2 discharges indifferent sectors of the Upplands Väsby economy, preferably using a life-cycle perspective. A second important aim should be to focus on energy saving measures, especially in the transportation and housing areas. A third interesting possibility is to support initiatives aimingof encouraging municipal and private land owners to contribute to energy production.
2007. , 50 p.