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Aqueous Solutions as seen through an Electron Spectrometer: Surface Structure, Hydration Motifs and Ultrafast Charge Delocalization Dynamics
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Surface and Interface Science. (Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In spite of their high abundance and importance, aqueous systems are enigmatic on the microscopic scale. In order to obtain information about their geometrical and electronic structure, simple aqueous solutions have been studied experimentally by photo- and Auger electron spectroscopy using the novel liquid micro-jet technique in conjunction with synchrotron radiation. The thesis is thematically divided into three parts.

In the first part we utilize the surface sensitivity of photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the distributions of solutes near the water surface. In agreement with recent theoretical predictions we find that large polarizable anions, such as I- and ClO4-, display enhanced surface propensities compared to smaller rigid ions. Surface effects arising from ion-ion interactions at higher electrolyte concentrations and as function of pH are investigated. Studies of linear mono-carboxylic acids and benzoic acid show that the neutral molecular forms of such weak acids are better stabilized at the water surface than their respective conjugate base forms.

The second part examines what type of information core-electron spectra can yield about the chemical state and hydration structure of small organic molecules in water. We demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the protonation state of titratable functional groups and that core-level lineshapes are dependent on local water hydration configurations. Using a combination of photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we also show that the electronic re-arrangement upon hydrolysis of aldehydes yields characteristic fingerprints in core-level spectra.

In the last part of this thesis we study ultrafast charge delocalization dynamics in aqueous solutions using resonant and off-resonant Auger spectroscopy. Intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) is found to occur in a number of core-excited solutions where excess energy is transferred between the solvent and the solute. The rate of ultrafast electron delocalization between hydrogen bonded water molecules upon oxygen 1s resonant core-excitation is found to decrease upon solvation of inorganic ions.

The presented work is illustrative of how core-level photoelectron spectroscopy can be valuable in the study of fundamental phenomena in aqueous solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 118 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 828
Keyword [en]
Water, Aqueous solutions, Ions, Molecular Hydration, Electron dynamics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrolysis, Acid-Base Chemistry, Interatomic Coulombic Decay, ICD, Liquid Micro-Jet, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, AES, MAX-lab, BESSY
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics with spec. in Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151435ISBN: 978-91-554-8083-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-151435DiVA: diva2:410722
Public defence
2011-06-01, Polhemssalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-11 Created: 2011-04-11 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid water and aqueous solution: Electron effective attenuation lengths and emission-angle anisotropy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid water and aqueous solution: Electron effective attenuation lengths and emission-angle anisotropy
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, ISSN 0368-2048, Vol. 177, no 2-3, 60-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy measurements from liquid water and from a 4m NaI aqueous solution are performed using a liquid microjet in combination with soft X-ray synchrotron radiation. From the oxygen is PE signal intensity from liquid water, measured as a function of photon energy (up to 1500 eV), we quantitatively determine relative electron inelastic effective attenuation lengths (EAL) for (photo)electron kinetic energies in the 70-900 eV range. In order to determine the absolute electron escape depths a calibration point is needed, which is not directly accessible by experiment. This information can instead be indirectly derived by comparing PE experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an aqueous solution interface where density profiles of water, anions, and cations are distinctively different. We have chosen sodium iodide in water because iodide has a considerable propensity for the solution surface, whereas the sodium cation is repelled from the surface. By measuring the intensities of photoelectrons emitted from different orbitals of different symmetries from each aqueous ion we also evaluate whether gas-phase ionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters can describe the photoemission from ions at and near the aqueous solution/vapor interface. We show that gas-phase data reproduce surprisingly well the experimental observations for hydrated ions as long as the photon energy is sufficiently far above the ionization threshold. Electrons detected at the higher photon energies originate predominantly from deeper layers, suggesting that bulk-solution electron elastic scattering is relatively weak.

Keyword
Liquid water and aqueous solutions, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Solution interfacial structure, Electron inelastic mean free path, Electron attenuation lengths in water, Molecular dynamics
National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-136438 (URN)10.1016/j.elspec.2009.08.007 (DOI)000277949100002 ()
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
2. Large variations in the propensity of aqueous oxychlorine anions for the solution/vapor interface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large variations in the propensity of aqueous oxychlorine anions for the solution/vapor interface
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 131, no 12, 124706- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Core-level photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have been performed of aqueous solutions of NaCl codissolved with NaClOn (n=1-4). Each species has a distinct Cl 2p electron binding energy, which can be exploited for depth-profiling experiments to study the competition between Cl-and ClOn- anions for residing in the outermost layers of the solution/vapor interface. Strongest propensity for the surface is observed for n=4 (perchlorate), followed by n=3 (chlorate), n=2 (chlorite), n=0 (chloride), and n=1 (hypochlorite). Molecular dynamics simulations rationalize the greatest surface propensity of the most oxidized anions in terms of their larger size and polarizability. The anomalous behavior of hypochlorite, being less surface-active than chloride, although it is both larger and more polarizable, is suggested to arise from the charge asymmetry over the anion, increasing its efficiency for bulk solvation. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3236805]

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-127500 (URN)10.1063/1.3236805 (DOI)000270380300070 ()
Available from: 2010-07-15 Created: 2010-07-13 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
3. The influence of concentration on the molecular surface structure of simple and mixed aqueous electrolytes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of concentration on the molecular surface structure of simple and mixed aqueous electrolytes
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2010 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 12, no 36, 10693-10700 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate various mechanisms contributing to the surface ion distributions in simple and mixed aqueous alkali-halide solutions depending on the total salt concentration, using a combination of photoelectron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. In simple solutions, the surface enhancement of large polarizable anions is reduced with increasing concentration. In the case of a NaBr/NaCl mixed aqueous solution, with bromide as the minority component, the situation is more complex. While the total anion/cation charge separation is similarly reduced with increasing salt content, this alone does not uniquely determine the ion distribution due to the co-existence of two different anions, Br- and Cl-. We show that bromide is selectively surface enhanced at higher concentrations, despite the fact that the total anion surface enhancement is reduced. This phenomenon, which can be viewed as "salting out'' of bromide by NaCl might have consequences for our understanding of the surface structure of mixed aqueous solutions subjected to concentration increase due to dehydration, such as seawater-born aerosols.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-134896 (URN)10.1039/c0cp00365d (DOI)000281613300005 ()
Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
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5. The Protonation State of Small Carboxylic Acids at the Water Surface from Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Protonation State of Small Carboxylic Acids at the Water Surface from Photoelectron Spectroscopy
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2011 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 13, no 26, 12261-12267 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report highly surface sensitive core-level photoelectron spectra of small carboxylic acids (formic, acetic and butyric acid) and their respective carboxylate conjugate base forms (formate, acetate and butyrate) in aqueous solution. The relative surface affinity of the carboxylic acids and carboxylates is obtained by monitoring their respective C1s signal intensities from a solution in which their bulk concentrations are equal. All the acids are found to be enriched at the surface relative to the corresponding carboxylates. By monitoring the PE signals of acetic acid and acetate as a function of total concentration, we find that the protonation of acetic acid is nearly complete in the interface layer. This is in agreement with literature surface tension data, from which it is inferred that the acids are enriched at the surface while (sodium) formate and acetate, but not butyrate, are depleted. For butyric acid, we conclude that the carboxylate form co-exist with the acid in the interface layer. The free energy cost of replacing an adsorbed butyric acid molecule with a butyrate ion at 1.0 M concentration is estimated to be >2.2 kBT. By comparing concentration dependent surface excess data with the evolution of the corresponding photoemission signals it is furthermore possible to draw conclusions about how the distribution of molecules that contribute to the excess is altered with bulk concentration.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151430 (URN)10.1039/C1CP20245F (DOI)000291885300017 ()21633751 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-04-11 Created: 2011-04-11 Last updated: 2015-08-13Bibliographically approved
6. Molecular Sinkers: X-ray Photoemission and Atomistic Simulations of Benzoic Acid and Benzoate at the Aqueous Solution/Vapor Interface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Sinkers: X-ray Photoemission and Atomistic Simulations of Benzoic Acid and Benzoate at the Aqueous Solution/Vapor Interface
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 116, no 43, 13017-13023 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work we, for the first time, provide a detailed microscopic picture of the behavior of benzoic acid at the aqueous solution/vapor interface in its neutral as well as in its dissociated form (benzoate). This is achieved through a combination of highly surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and fully atomistic molecular simulations. We show that drastic changes occur in the interface behavior of the neutral acid upon release of the proton. The benzoic acid molecules are found to be strongly adsorbed in the interface layer with the planes of the aromatic rings oriented almost parallel to the water surface. In contrast, in the benzoate form the carboxylate group shows a sinker-like behavior while the aromatic ring acts as a buoy, oriented nearly perpendicular to the surface. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the molecular ions move from the interface layer into the bulk of the solution. We rationalize these findings in terms of the very different hydration properties of benzoic acid's carboxylic group in the two charge states. The molecule has an amphiphilic nature and the deprotonation thus changes the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance between the nonpolar aromatic and the polar carboxylic parts of the molecule. That, consequently, leads to a pronounced reorientation of the molecule at the interface.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151434 (URN)10.1021/jp300956j (DOI)000310482800014 ()
Available from: 2011-04-11 Created: 2011-04-11 Last updated: 2013-01-09Bibliographically approved
7. On the Origins of Core-Electron Chemical Shifts of Small Biomolecules in Aqueous Solution: Insights from Photoemisson and ab Initio Calculations of Glycine(aq)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Origins of Core-Electron Chemical Shifts of Small Biomolecules in Aqueous Solution: Insights from Photoemisson and ab Initio Calculations of Glycine(aq)
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2011 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 9, 3120-3130 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The local electronic structure of glycine in neutral, basic, and acidic aqueous solution is studied experimentally by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretically by molecular dynamics simulations accompanied by first-principle electronic structure and spectrum calculations. Measured and computed nitrogen and carbon is binding energies are assigned to different local atomic environments, which are shown to be sensitive to the protonation/deprotonation of the amino and carboxyl functional groups at different pH values. We report the first accurate computation of core-level chemical shifts of an aqueous solute in various protonation states and explicitly show how the distributions of photoelectron binding energies (core-level peak widths) are related to the details of the hydrogen bond configurations, i.e. the geometries of the water solvation shell and the associated electronic screening. The comparison between the experiments and calculations further enables the separation of protonation-induced (covalent) and solvent-induced (electrostatic) screening contributions to the chemical shifts in the aqueous phase. The present core-level line shape analysis facilitates an accurate interpretation of photoelectron spectra from larger biomolecular solutes than glycine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2011
National Category
Chemical Sciences Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-149411 (URN)10.1021/ja110321q (DOI)000289455200051 ()
Available from: 2011-03-19 Created: 2011-03-19 Last updated: 2012-03-13Bibliographically approved
8. An electronic signature of hydrolysation in the X-ray absorption spectrum of aqueous formaldehyde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An electronic signature of hydrolysation in the X-ray absorption spectrum of aqueous formaldehyde
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2008 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, Vol. 460, no 4-6, 540-542 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Formaldehyde in aqueous solution is hydrolysed and forms methanediol. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy we show that the hydrolysation product can be identified by a distinct electronic signature in the spectra. This is manifested by the disappearance of the oxygen 1s -> ; pi* absorption line. The X-ray absorption spectrum of aqueous formaldehyde is compared with those of the structurally similar formamide and urea, which are in contrast not hydrolysed in aqueous solution. We thereby demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity and simplicity of the technique to monitor this fundamental process in the aqueous phase.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105934 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2008.06.043 (DOI)000257765600031 ()
Available from: 2009-06-10 Created: 2009-06-10 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
9. Electronic rearrangement upon the hydrolyzation of aqueous formaldehyde studied by core-electron spectroscopies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic rearrangement upon the hydrolyzation of aqueous formaldehyde studied by core-electron spectroscopies
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 112, no 51, 16642-16646 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have combined near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study the electronic rearrangement associated with the hydrolyzation of formaldehyde to methanediol in aqueous solution. The spectra are   contrasted against those of aqueous formamide and urea, which are structurally similar but do not undergo hydrolysis in solution. We have recently demonstrated that the hydrolyzation of formaldehyde is manifested in the oxygen Is NEXAFS spectrum by the disappearance of the oxygen 1s -> pi* absorption line. This is a characteristic signature   that the C=O double bond has been broken. In the present study we extend our investigation to include carbon Is NEXAFS and XPS spectra of the three solutions. The carbon NEXAFS spectra show the C 1s -> pi* absorption line for each solute except for formaldehyde. Moreover, the   carbon Is photoelectron spectra exhibit a single peak for each solute. These observations point to a near complete hydrolyzation of formaldehyde, whereas formamide and urea remain intact in the solution. The analysis is further supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, showing a C Is chemical shift of approximately 1.0 eV between hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed forms, which would give   distinguishable features in the photoemission spectrum, if coexisting forms were present in the solutions.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-105936 (URN)10.1021/jp806210m (DOI)000261835100051 ()
Available from: 2009-06-10 Created: 2009-06-10 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
10. Interaction between liquid water and hydroxide revealed by core-hole de-excitation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between liquid water and hydroxide revealed by core-hole de-excitation
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2008 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, Vol. 455, no 7209, 89-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The hydroxide ion plays an important role in many chemical and biochemical processes in aqueous solution(1). But ourmolecular- level understanding of its unusual and fast transport in water, and of the solvation patterns that allow fast transport, is far from complete. One proposal seeks to explain the properties and behaviour of the hydroxide ion by essentially regarding it as a water molecule that is missing a proton(2), and by inferring transport mechanisms and hydration structures from those of the excess proton. A competing proposal invokes instead unique and interchanging hydroxide hydration complexes, particularly the hypercoordinated OH-(H2O)(4) species and tri- coordinated OH-(H2O)(3) that can form a transient hydrogen bond between the H atom of the OH- and a neighbouring water molecule(3-5). Here we report measurements of core- level photoelectron emission and intermolecular Coulombic decay(6-8) for an aqueous hydroxide solution, which show that the hydrated hydroxide ion is capable of transiently donating a hydrogen bond to surrounding watermolecules. In agreement with recent experimental studies of hydroxide solutions(9-12), our finding thus supports the notion that the hydration structure of the hydroxide ion cannot be inferred from that of the hydrated excess proton.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109093 (URN)10.1038/nature07252 (DOI)000258890200042 ()
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved
11. Bond Breaking, Electron Pushing and Proton Pulling: Active and Passive Roles in the Interaction between Aqueous Ions and Water as Manifested in the O 1s Auger Decay
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bond Breaking, Electron Pushing and Proton Pulling: Active and Passive Roles in the Interaction between Aqueous Ions and Water as Manifested in the O 1s Auger Decay
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 116, no 1, 3-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A core-ionized H2O molecule in liquid water primarily relaxes through normal Auger decay, leading to a two-hole final state in which both valence holes are localized on the same water molecule. Electronic coupling to the environment, however, allows for alternative decays resembling Intermolecular Coulombic Decay (ICD), producing final states with one of the holes delocalized on a neighboring water molecule. Here we present an experimental study of such minority processes, which adds to our understanding of dynamic interactions of electronically excited H2O molecules with their local surrounding in liquid water and aqueous solution. We show that the solvation of metal-halide salts considerably influences these minority decay channels from the water 0 1s-1 state. By breaking water-water bonds, both the metal cations and halide anions are found to reduce the decay into water-water delocalized states, thus having a "passive" effect on the Auger spectrum. The halide anions also play an "active" role by opening a new ICD-like decay pathway into water-halide delocalized states. The importance of this contribution increases from F- to I-, which we suggest to be caused by a directional polarization of the halide anion toward the core-ionized H2O+ cation in the intermediate state of the Auger process. This increases the electronic overlap between the two centers and makes delocalized decays more probable. We furthermore show that F-, the smallest and most strongly hydrated of the halides, plays an additional role as proton puller during the core-hole lifetime, resulting in proton dynamics on the low femtosecond time scale. Our results represent a step forward toward a better understanding of how aqueous solutions, when exposed to soft X-rays, channel excess energy. This has implications for several aspects of physical and radiation chemistry, as well as biology.

National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics with spec. in Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-138743 (URN)10.1021/jp2041247 (DOI)000298978100002 ()
Available from: 2010-12-19 Created: 2010-12-19 Last updated: 2012-02-08Bibliographically approved
12. Cations Strongly Reduce Electron Hopping-Times in Aqueous Solutions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cations Strongly Reduce Electron Hopping-Times in Aqueous Solutions
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2011 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 34, 13489-13495 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study how the ultrafast electron transfer between H2O molecules in liquid water upon absorption of soft X-ray radiation depends on the local molecular binding environment. Our probe is the resonant Auger-decay of the water O1s core-hole (~3.6 fs), by which we show that efficiency for electron delocalization can be significantly reduced when a first-shell water molecule is replaced by an atomic ion. Decays resulting from excitations at the O1s post-edge feature (~540 eV) of 6m LiBr and 3m MgBr2 aqueous solutions reveal electron hopping-times of approximately 1.5 and 1.9 fs, respectively – the latter represents a four-fold increase compared to the corresponding value in neat water. The slower electron delocalization in electrolytes, which shows a strong dependence on the charge of the cations, can be explained by ion-induced reduction of water-water orbital mixing. Density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations of solvation geometries obtained from molecular dynamics simulations reveal that this phenomenon largely arises from electrostatic perturbations of ions on the solvating water molecules. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to deliberately manipulate charge-transfer rates in aqueous media.

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Physics; Chemistry with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151431 (URN)10.1021/ja204100j (DOI)000295551600049 ()
Available from: 2011-04-11 Created: 2011-04-11 Last updated: 2015-07-24Bibliographically approved
13. Charge Dependence of Solvent-Mediated Intermolecular Coster-Kronig Decay Dynamics of Aqueous Ions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charge Dependence of Solvent-Mediated Intermolecular Coster-Kronig Decay Dynamics of Aqueous Ions
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, no 51, 17057-17061 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 2s and 2p photoelectron spectra have been measured for Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ ions in aqueous solution.In all cases, the 2s lines are significantly broader than the 2p features, which is attributed to a shorter lifetimeof the respective 2s hole. Since intraionic Coster-Kronig decay channels from the (2s)-1 state are closed forfree Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ ions, this is evidence for an intermolecular Coster-Kronig-like process, reminiscentof intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD), involving neighboring water solvent molecules. The observed 2s Lorentzian line widths correspond to lifetimes of the (2s)-1 state of 3.1, 1.5, and 0.98 fs for the solvated Na,Mg, and Al ions, respectively.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics with spec. in Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-138741 (URN)10.1021/jp108956v (DOI)000285560100006 ()
Available from: 2010-12-19 Created: 2010-12-19 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved

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