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High power impulse magnetron sputtering under industrial conditions
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, the recent development step of magnetron sputtering, termed high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been studied. Compared to conventional magnetron sputtering HiPIMS provides a higher plasma density which can ionise the sputtered material. The beneficial influence of the coating properties due to this ionisation has been extensively shown in academic publications. Here, industrial conditions, i.e. no substrate heating and high vacuum conditions have been used during the studies, of which one was performed in an industrial deposition system.

For eight metallic targets, films were deposited with HiPIMS and conventional sputtering. The films were evaluated by Rutherford back scattering analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and profilometry. It was found that the density of the HiPIMS grown films exhibited a statistically significant higher density of approximately 5-15% in comparison to films deposited using DCMS under identical conditions. A global plasma model was employed to evaluate the degree of ionisation for some of the target materials, and process conditions used in the study. Conformity between density increase and degree of ionisation as assessed by the plasma model was confirmed.

The influence of using HiPIMS during reactive sputtering of TiC was also studied. A metallic Ti target was sputtered in a gas mixture of Ar and C2H2. The coatings were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, 4 point probe resistivity measurements, and nanoindentation. The coatings were found to be nanocomposite TiC/a-C:H. For the HiPIMS process the transition zone between metallic and compound target states was found to be significantly expanded over a wide reactive gas flow range. The implications of choice of deposition method for coating composition, chemical structure, as well as electrical and mechanical properties were evaluated for DCMS and HiPIMS. The process behaviour was suggested to be due to the pulsed nature of the HiPIMS, the high plasma density, and ion content of the particles reaching the substrate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 45 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1477
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67487Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2011:16ISBN: 978-91-7393-194-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67487DiVA: diva2:410578
Presentation
2011-05-17, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-14 Created: 2011-04-14 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the film density using high power impulse magnetron sputtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the film density using high power impulse magnetron sputtering
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2010 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 2, 591-596 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence on thin film density using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been investigated for eight different target materials (Al, Ti, Cr. Cu, Zr, Ag, Ta, and Pt). The density values as well as deposition rates have been compared to results obtained from thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) under the same experimental conditions. Overall, it was found that the HIPIMS deposited coatings were approximately 5-15% denser compared to the DCMS deposited coatings This could be attributed to the increased metal ion bombardment commonly seen in HIPIMS discharges, which also was verified using a global plasma model to assess the degree of ionization of sputtered metal One key feature is that the momentum transfer between the growing film and the incoming metal ions is very efficient due to the equal mass of film and bombarding species, leading to a less pronounced columnar microstructure As expected the deposition rates were found to be lower for HiPIMS compared to DCMS For several materials this decrease is not as pronounced as previously reported in the literature, which is shown in the case of Ta. Pt, and Ag with rate(HIPIMS)/rate(DCMS)-70-85%. while still achieving denser coatings

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
Keyword
HIPIMS, HPPMS, DCMS, Density, RBS, Global plasma model
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60690 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.07.041 (DOI)000282542300053 ()
Available from: 2010-11-01 Created: 2010-10-22 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved
2. Growth of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering under industrial conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering under industrial conditions
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2012 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 8-9, 2396-2402 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Titanium carbide (TiC) films were deposited employing high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) in an Ar-C2H2 atmosphere of various compositions. Analysis of the structural, bonding and compositional characteristics revealed that the deposited films are nanocomposites; either hydrogenated amorphous carbon and TiC (TiC/a-C:H), or Titanium and TiC (Ti/TiC) depending on the C/Ti ratio of the films. It was found that TiC/a-C:H films grown by HiPIMS were dense, and within a certain C2H2 flow range (4-15 sccm) showed little changes in C/Ti ratio, which also saturated towards 1. The HiPIMS grown films also exhibited the tendency to form smaller fractions of amorphous C matrix, and incorporate smaller amounts of oxygen contaminants, as compared to films grown by DCMS. The TiC/a-C:H films exhibited resistivity and hardness values of 4-8×102 μΩcm and 20-27 GPa, respectively when deposited by HiPIMS. The corresponding values for films grown by DCMS at the same deposition rate as HiPIMS were >10×102 μΩcm and ~6-10 GPa respectively, likely due to abundant formation of free C and porosity, allowing oxygen contaminations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67485 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.10.039 (DOI)000300458500047 ()
Note

funding agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)| 621-2005-3245 621-2008-3222 623-2009-7348 |

Available from: 2011-04-14 Created: 2011-04-14 Last updated: 2015-05-28Bibliographically approved

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