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Design and Implementation of Centrally-Coordinated Peer-to-Peer Live-streaming
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. (SCS)
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, we explore the use of a centrally-coordinated peer-to-peer overlay as a possible solution to the live streaming problem. Our contribution lies in showing that such approach is indeed feasible given that a number of key challenges are met.

The motivation behind exploring an alternative design is that, although a number of approaches have been investigated in the past, e.g. mesh-pull and tree-push, hybrids and best-of-both-worlds mesh-push, no consensus has been reached on the best solution for the problem of peer-to-peer live streaming, despite current deployments and reported successes.

In the proposed system, we model sender/receiver peer assignments as an optimization problem. Optimized peer selection based on multiple utility factors, such as bandwidth availability, delays and connectivity compatibility, make it possible to achieve large source bandwidth savings and provide high quality of user experience. Clear benefits of our approach are observed when Network Address Translation constraints are present on the network.

We have addressed key scalability issues of our platform by parallelizing the heuristic which is the core of our optimization engine and by implementing the resulting algorithm on commodity Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). The outcome is a Linear Sum Assignment Problem (LSAP) solver for time-constrained systems which produces near-optimal results and can be used for any instance of LSAP, i.e. not only in our system.

 

As part of this work, we also present our experience in working with Network Address Translators (NATs) traversal in peer-to-peer systems. Our contribution in this context is threefold. First, we provide a semi-formal model of state of the art NAT behaviors. Second, we use our model to show which NAT combinations can be theoretically traversed and which not. Last, for each of the combinations, we state which traversal technique should be used. Our findings are confirmed by experimental results on a real network.

Finally, we address the problem of reproducibility in testing, debugging and evaluation of our peer-to-peer application. We achieve this by providing a software framework which can be transparently integrated with any already-existing software and which is able to handle concurrency, system time and network events in a reproducible manner.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , viii, 78 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 2011:03
Keyword [en]
peer-to-peer, live-streaming, nat traversal
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Engineering
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32387ISBN: 978-91-7415-957-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32387DiVA: diva2:410372
Presentation
2011-05-05, Sal D, Forum 105, Kista, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-13 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On The Feasibility Of Centrally-Coordinated Peer-To-Peer Live Streaming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On The Feasibility Of Centrally-Coordinated Peer-To-Peer Live Streaming
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2011 (English)In: In Proceedings of IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present an exploration of central coordination as a way of managing P2P live streaming overlays. The main point is to show the elements needed to construct a system with that approach. A key elementin the feasibility of this approach is a near real-time optimization engine for peer selection. Peer organization in a way that enables high bandwidth utilization plus optimized peer selection based on multiple utility factors make it possible to achieve large source bandwidth savings and provide high quality of user experience. The benefits of our approach are also seen most when NAT constraints come into play.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32370 (URN)10.1109/CCNC.2011.5766328 (DOI)2-s2.0-79957890842 (ScopusID)978-142448790-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC'2011; Las Vegas, NV; United States
Note

QC 20110426

Available from: 2011-04-13 Created: 2011-04-13 Last updated: 2014-09-16Bibliographically approved
2. Natcracker: Nat combinations matter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natcracker: Nat combinations matter
2009 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, ICCCN, San Francisco, CA, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we report our experience in working with Network Address Translators (NATs). Traditionally, there were only 4 types of NATs. For each type, the (im)possibility of traversal is well-known. Recently, the NAT community has provided a deeper dissection of NAT behaviors resulting into at least 27 types and documented the (im)possibility of traversal for some types. There are, however, two fundamental issues that were not previously tackled by the community. First, given the more elaborate set of behaviors, it is incorrect to reason about traversing a single NAT, instead combinations must be considered and we have not found any study that comprehensively states, for every possible combination, whether direct connectivity with no relay is feasible. Such a statement is the first outcome of the paper. Second, there is a serious need for some kind of formalism to reason about NATs which is a second outcome of this paper. The results were obtained using our own scheme which is an augmentation of currently-known traversal methods. The scheme is validated by reasoning using our formalism, simulation and implementation in a real P2P network. ©2009 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Francisco, CA: , 2009
Keyword
Network address translators, P2P network, Computer simulation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32889 (URN)10.1109/ICCCN.2009.5235278 (DOI)2-s2.0-70449103450 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2013-11-22Bibliographically approved
3. GPU-based heuristic solver for linear sum assignment problems under real-time constraints
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GPU-based heuristic solver for linear sum assignment problems under real-time constraints
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2010 (English)In: Proceedings of Informatics and Systems (INFOS), 2010 The 7th International Conference, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32892 (URN)
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved
4. MyP2PWorld: Highly Reproducible Application-level Emulation of P2P Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MyP2PWorld: Highly Reproducible Application-level Emulation of P2P Systems
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2008 (English)In: SASOW 2008: SECOND IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SELF-ADAPTIVE AND SELF-ORGANIZING SYSTEMS WORKSHOPS, PROCEEDINGS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2008, 272-277 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we describe an application-level emulator for P2P systems with a special focus on high reproducibility We achieve reproduciblity by taking control over the scheduling of concurrent events from the operating system. We accomplish that for inter- and intra- peer concurrency The development of the system was driven by the need to enhance the testing process of an already-developed industrial product. Therefore, we were constrained by the architecture of the overlying application. However, we managed to provide highly transparent emulation by wrapping standard/widely-used networking and concurrency APIs. The resulting environment has proven to be useful in a production environment. At this stage, it started to be general enough to be used in the testing process of applications other than the one it was created to test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2008
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32891 (URN)000273016800047 ()2-s2.0-64849102426 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20110426Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2011-04-26Bibliographically approved

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