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Combined Electricity Production and Thermally Driven Cooling from Municipal Solid Waste
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasingly intensive efforts are being made to enhance energy systems via augmented introduction of renewable energy along with improved energy efficiency. Resource constraints and sustained high fossil fuel prices have created a new phenomenon in the world market. Enhanced energy security and renewable energy development are currently high on public agenda worldwide for achieving a high standard of welfare for future generations. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) have widely been accepted as important locally-available renewable energy sources offering low carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Concerning solid waste management, it has become a critical issue in Southeast Asia since the most popular form for waste disposal still employs open dumping and landfilling. While the need for a complete sustainable energy solution is apparent, solid waste management is also an essential objective, so it makes sense to explore ways in which the two can be joined.

Electricity production in combination with energy recovery from flue gases in thermal treatment plants is an integral part of MSW management for many industrialized nations. In Sweden, MSW is considered as an important fuel resource for partially meeting EU environmental targets within cogeneration. However it is normally difficult to justify traditional cogeneration in tropical locations since there is little need for the heat produced. Similarly, MSW-fired cogeneration usually operates with low capacity during non-heating season in Sweden. Therefore, it is very important to find new alternatives for energy applications from waste, such as the implementation of thermally driven cooling processes via absorption cooling in addition to electricity production.

The work presented herein concentrates first on an investigation of electricity generation from MSW power plants and various energy applications from waste in tropical urban areas. The potential for various types of absorption chillers driven by MSW power plants for providing both electricity and cooling is of particular interest. Additionally a demonstration and analysis of decentralized thermally driven cooling in district heating network supplied by low temperature heat from a cogeneration of MSW have been conducted. This study aims at developing the best system configuration as well as finding improved system design and control for a combination of district heating and distributed thermally driven cooling.

Results show that MSW incineration has the ability to lessen environmental impacts associated with waste disposal, and it can contribute positively towards expanding biomass-based energy production in Southeast Asia. For electricity production, the proposed hybrid dual-fuel (MSW/natural gas) cycles feature attractive electrical efficiency improvements, leading to greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Cogeneration coupled with thermally driven cooling is a solution that holds promise for uniting enhanced sustainability with economic advantages. The system offers great opportunity for primary energy saving, increasing electrical yield and can significantly reduce CO2 emissions per unit of cooling as compared to compression chiller. The demonstration and simulation have also revealed that there is a potential with some modifications and improvements to employ decentralized thermally driven cooling in district heating networks even in temperate regions like Sweden. Thus, expanding cogeneration towards trigeneration can augment the energy supply for summer months in Europe and for year-round cooling in tropical locations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xvi, 88 p.
Series
Trita-KRV, ISSN 1100-7990 ; 2011:02
Keyword [en]
municipal solid waste, incineration, hybrid cycle, power production, thermally driven cooling, absorption chillers, decentralized thermally driven cooling, district heating
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32117ISBN: 978-91-7415-930-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32117DiVA: diva2:409206
Public defence
2011-04-28, Sal M2, Brinellvägen 64, KTH, Stockholm, 11:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUp
Note
QC 20110408Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2012-01-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Clean energy conversion from municipal solid waste and climate change mitigation in Thailand: Waste management and thermodynamic evaluation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clean energy conversion from municipal solid waste and climate change mitigation in Thailand: Waste management and thermodynamic evaluation
2011 (English)In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 15, no 4, 355-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Enhanced energy security and renewable energy development are currently high on the public agenda in Southeast Asia, which features large populations and expansive economies. Biomass and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) have widely been accepted as important locally-available renewable energy sources and represent one of the largest renewable energy sources worldwide. This article presents an evaluation of the potential of MSW incineration for climate change mitigation and promotion of biomass-based electricity production in a more sustainable direction in Thailand. The energy recovery potential of MSW is analyzed by investigating various types of incineration technologies. Both conventional technologies and more advanced hybrid dual-fuel cycles (which combine MSW and natural gas fuels) are considered in analyses covering cycle performance and CO(2) emissions. Results show that MSW incineration has the ability to lessen environmental impact associated with waste disposal, and it can contribute positively towards expanding biomass-based energy production in Thailand. Hybrid cycles can be proposed to improve system performance and overall electrical efficiency of conventional incineration. The hybrid cycle featuring parallel interconnection is somewhat more attractive in terms of efficiency improvement: electrical efficiency increases by 4% and CO(2) emission levels are reduced by 5-10% as compared to the reference incineration case. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is even more attractive when methane gas emitted fro m existing landfill sites is to be compared.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
MSW management, Energy recovery, Electrical efficiency, CO2 emissions, Climate change mitigation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32106 (URN)10.1016/j.esd.2011.07.007 (DOI)000297568500002 ()2-s2.0-81455154456 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20110408

Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2013-09-13Bibliographically approved
2. The Role of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems in Southeast Asia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems in Southeast Asia
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of SIDA Conference and Workshop in Uppsala - Meeting Global Challenges in Research Cooperation / [ed] Ingrid Karlsson and Kristina Röing de Nowina, 2008, 60-67 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an evaluation of the potential of municipal solid waste incinerationfor greenhouse gas mitigation and promotion of biomass-based electricity productionin a more sustainable direction in Southeast Asia. Beyond political and environmentalpressures, renewable energy sources are inherently attractive and have become a globalconcern. Resource constraints and rapid growth in world energy demand have alreadybrought oil prices over record levels. Developing countries – especially in high economicgrowth regions of Southeast Asia – often have strained resources and suffer as a result.Enhanced energy security and renewable energy development is high on the publicagenda in Thailand and other countries in Asia. Biomass and municipal solid waste(MSW) have widely been accepted as important renewable energy sources because theymay be used as carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation concepts. Solid waste management hasbecome a crucial issue in Southeast Asia since the most popular form for waste disposalstill employs open dumping. The overall objective of this investigation is to promotesound MSW management practices including waste-to-energy (WTE) recovery, as wellas to promote an expansion of biomass-based electricity. The energy recovery potentialof MSW is analyzed by investigating various types of incineration technologies. Bothconventional and more advanced hybrid dual-fuel cycles are considered to evaluate cycleperformance (electrical efficiency), CO2 emission and economic aspects. Results show that there is significant potential for environmental and waste management improvements viaMSW incineration. In Bangkok only, power production via hybrid power plants employingintegrated natural gas-fired topping cycles can achieve up to 4 TWh and 10 TWhin 2008 and 2030, respectively. The reduction of CO2 emissions is even more attractivewhen hybrid dual-fuel cycles are combined. CO2 reductions of 670 and 1,800 thousandtons, respectively, can be met in comparison with current thermal power plants. Hybriddual-fuel cycle is somewhat more attractive as it has quite short payback period (5 years)in terms of economy comparison.

Series
, Utsikt mot utveckling, ISSN 1403 – 1264 ; 32
Keyword
Municipal solid waste, Incineration, Energy potential, Greenhouse gases
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32109 (URN)ISBN 978–91–975741–9–8 (ISBN)
Conference
SIDA Conference and Workshop, 27–29 May 2008, Uppsala, Sweden
Note

QC 20110408

Available from: 2011-04-08 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
3. Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand
2010 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 7, 1414-1422 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Finding environmentally benign methods related to sound municipal solid waste (MSW) management is of highest priority in Southeast Asia. It is very important to study new approaches which can reduce waste generation and simultaneously enhance energy recovery. One concrete example of particular significance is the concept of hybrid dual-fuel power plants featuring MSW and another high-quality fuel like natural gas. The hybrid dual-fuel cycles provide significantly higher electrical efficiencies than a composite of separate single-fuel power plant (standalone gas turbine combined cycle and MSW incineration). Although hybrid versions are of great importance for energy conversion from MSW, an economic assessment of these systems must be addressed for a realistic appraisal of these technologies. This paper aims to further examine an economic assessment and energy model analysis of different conversion technologies. Energy models are developed to further refine the expected potential of MSW incineration with regards to energy recovery and environmental issues. Results show that MSW incineration can play role for greenhouse gas reduction, energy recovery and waste management. In Bangkok, the electric power production via conventional incineration and hybrid power plants can cover 2.5% and 8% of total electricity consumption, respectively. The hybrid power plants have a relative short payback period (5 years) and can further reduce the CO2 levels by 3% in comparison with current thermal power plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
Electric power measurement, Electric power systems, Electric utilities, Energy conversion, Fuels, Gas plants, Gas turbines, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, Investments, Petroleum refining, Power plants, Solid wastes, Thermoelectric power plants, Turbomachinery, Waste management
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27314 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2010.02.009 (DOI)000278682000034 ()20207531 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77952672608 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20101209Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2011-12-22Bibliographically approved
4. Possibilities for Various Energy Applications from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration in Bangkok and Hanoi: Combined Heat, Cooling and Power Generation (CHCP) in Southeast Asia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities for Various Energy Applications from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration in Bangkok and Hanoi: Combined Heat, Cooling and Power Generation (CHCP) in Southeast Asia
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of i-CIPEC2008 - 5th International Conference on Combustion, Incineration/Pyrolysis and Emission Control, 2008, 103-109 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Increasingly intensive efforts are underway for employing renewable energy resources, especially when oil prices are unpredictable like today. Southeast Asia, which features large populations and expansive economies, already has a high energy demand and will grow even more in the future. Biomass is an important renewable energy source in this region, and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an excellent candidate in this context. With industrialization, there has been an increase in the amount of MSW, particularly in large cities like Bangkok and Hanoi. While the need for a complete sustainable energy solution is crucial, solid waste management is also critical for these cities. Energy recovery from flue gases in thermal treatment plants is an integral part of MSW management for many industrialized nations. Often cogeneration can be employed for both enhancing the plant profitability and increasing the overall energy yield. However, it is normally difficult to justify traditional cogeneration in tropical locations since there is little need for the heat produced. The implementation of heat-driven cooling processes like absorption chillers is extremely attractive in this setting. In this paper, the energy applications from MSW in tropical urban areas have been investigated. Also investigated are the opportunities and potentials for various types of MSW power plants for providing both electricity and cooling in an innovative fashion. Results show that there is significant potential for various energy applications i.e. electricity, heatingand cooling from MSW in Southeast Asia. For example, electricity production via conventional incineration of MSW can achieve up to 2TWh per year in Bangkok and nearly this same amount in Hanoi. For heat-driven cooling, absorption chillers provide significant potential to replace electrically driven cooling: such systems are capable of providing 77 MWcooling and 22 MWel from CHP plant using MSW incineration. Heat driven chillers are also capable of reducing the fuel consumption per unit of cooling in comparison with conventional cooling technology: absorption chillers consume 0.78 MWfuel/MWcooling while distributed compression chillersconsume 2.06 MWfuel/MWcooling. If an MSW power plant coupled with heat- driven cooling is to be implemented, the system can save 118 MW of NG (60 MW of electricity) from thermal power plant.

Keyword
Energy Recovery from MSW, MSW incineration, Thailand and Vietnam, Heat-driven cooling, CHCP
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32113 (URN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Combustion, Incineration/Pyrolysis and Emission Control (i-CIPEC 2008); 16-19 December 2008, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Note

QC 20110408

Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
5. Thermally driven cooling coupled with municipal solid waste-fired power plant: Application of combined heat, cooling and power in tropical urban areas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermally driven cooling coupled with municipal solid waste-fired power plant: Application of combined heat, cooling and power in tropical urban areas
2011 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 5, 1532-1542 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy recovery from flue gases in thermal treatment plants is an integral part of municipal solid waste (MSW) management for many industrialized nations. Often cogeneration can be employed for both enhancing the plant profitability and increasing the overall energy yield. However, it is normally difficult to justify traditional cogeneration in tropical locations since there is little need for the heat produced. The main objective of this article is to investigate the opportunities and potentials for various types of absorption technologies driven by MSW power plants for providing both electricity and cooling. Results show that cogeneration coupling with thermally driven cooling is sustainably and economically attractive for both electricity and cooling production. The thermally driven cooling provides significant potential to replace electrically driven cooling: such systems are capable of providing cooling output and simultaneously increasing electricity yield (41%). The systems are also capable of reducing the fuel consumption per unit of cooling in comparison with conventional cooling technology: a reduction of more than 1 MWfuel/MWcooling can be met in a small unit. MSW power plant coupled with thermally driven cooling can further reduce CO2 emissions per unit of cooling of around 60% as compared to conventional compression chiller and has short payback period (less than 5 years).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
MSW incineration, Absorption chillers, Thermally driven cooling, Economic evaluation, Greenhouse gas reduction, Tropical urban areas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32036 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.020 (DOI)000288360500008 ()2-s2.0-79551533369 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20110405Available from: 2011-04-05 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2011-12-22Bibliographically approved
6. Decentralised Cooling in District Heating Network: Monitoring Results and Calibration of Simulation Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralised Cooling in District Heating Network: Monitoring Results and Calibration of Simulation Model
2011 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, Vol. 43, no 12, 3311-3321 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the monitoring results of a thermally driven chiller (TDC) driven by district heat from a network supplied by a centralised combined heat and power (CHP) fired with municipal waste. The main objective of this article is to analyse the monitoring results obtained from the demonstration and calibrate a system model that is later used for parametric studies in order to find improved system design and control. The calibration of the system model was made in three stages and all the energy performance figures were within 4% of the measured values. Results show that the TDC system is capable of providing maximum thermal and electrical COP's of 0.50 and 4.6 respectively during the hottest period. For the complete monitoring period during the summer of 2008, the figures were 0.41 and 2.1. The lower figures were due to continuous pump operation inside the TDC even during periods of no cold production and a period when no cold was produced. However the internal pumps inside the TDC have been removed in the new version TDC to increase the electrical COP. System simulation and parametric studies will be employed to further determine how the electrical COP can be improved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
Calibration of simulation model, Decentralised cooling, District heating network, Monitoring results, Thermally driven chillers, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32114 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.08.001 (DOI)000298268600003 ()2-s2.0-80755153626 (ScopusID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, FP6-2004-TREN-3 (Contract No. 019988)
Note
QC 20110408Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2012-01-23Bibliographically approved
7. Decentralized cooling in district heating network: System simulation and parametric study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralized cooling in district heating network: System simulation and parametric study
2012 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, 175-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents system simulation and parametric study of the demonstration system of decentralized cooling in district heating network. The monitoring results obtained from the demonstration were calibrated and used for parametric studies in order to find improved system design and control. This study concentrates on system simulation studies that aim to: reduce the electricity consumption, to improve the thermal COP's and capacity if possible; and to study how the system would perform with different boundary conditions such as climate and load. The internal pumps inside the thermally driven chiller (TDC) have been removed in the new version TDC and implemented in this study to increase the electrical COP. Results show that replacement of the fourth with the fifth generation TDC increases the system electrical COP from 2.64 to 5.27. The results obtained from parametric studies show that the electrical and thermal COP's, with new realistic boundary conditions, increased from 2.74 to 5.53 and 0.48 to 0.52, respectively for the 4th generation TDC and from 5.01 to 7.46 and 0.33 to 0.43, respectively for the 5th generation TDC. Additionally the delivered cold increased from 2320 to 8670 and 2080 to 7740. kWh for the 4th and 5th generation TDC's, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Decentralized cooling, District heating network, Simulation study, Thermally driven chiller, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32115 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.10.009 (DOI)000300463800019 ()2-s2.0-82155176113 (ScopusID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, FP6-2004-TREN-3 (Contract No. 019988)
Note
QC 20110408Available from: 2011-04-06 Created: 2011-04-06 Last updated: 2012-04-02Bibliographically approved

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