Understanding the mechanisms behind atom transfer radical polymerization: exploring the limit of control
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is one of the most commonly employed techniques for controlled radical polymerization. ATRP has great potential for the development of new materials due to the ability to control molecular weight and polymer architecture. To fully utilize the potential of ATRP as polymerization technique, the mechanism and the dynamics of the ATRP equilibrium must be well understood.
In this thesis, various aspects of the ATRP process are explored through both laboratory experiments and computer modeling. Solvent effects, the limit of control and the use of iron as the mediator have been investigated. It was shown for copper mediated ATRP that the redox properties of the mediator and the polymerization properties were significantly affected by the solvent. As expected, the apparent rate constant (kpapp) increased with increasing activity of the mediator, but an upper limit was reached, where after kpapp was practically independent of the mediator potential. The degree of control deteriorated as the limit was approached.
In the simulations, which were based on the thermodynamic properties of the ATRP equilibrium, the same trend of increasing kpapp with increasing mediator activity was seen and a maximum was also reached. The simulation results could be used to describe the limit of control. The maximum equilibrium constant for controlled ATRP was correlated to the propagation rate constant, which enables the design of controlled ATRP systems.
Using iron compounds instead of copper compounds as mediators in ATRP is attractive from environmental aspects. Two systems with iron were investigated. Firstly, iron/EDTA was investigated as mediator as its redox properties are within a suitable range for controlled ATRP. The polymerization of styrene was heterogeneous, where the rate limiting step is the adsorption of the dormant species to the mediator surface. The polymerizations were not controlled and it is possible that they had some cationic character.
In the second iron system, the intention was to investigate how different ligands affect the properties of an ATRP system with iron. Due to competitive coordination of the solvent, DMF, the redox and polymerization properties were not significantly affected by the ligands. The differences between normal and reverse ATRP of MMA, such as the degree of control, were the result of different FeIII speciation in the two systems.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 64 p.
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:021
polymerization, controlled radical polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, kinetics, catalysis, electrochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-32104ISBN: 978-91-7415-933-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-32104DiVA: diva2:408884
2011-04-29, Sal K2, Teknikringen 28, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Haddleton, David M, Professor
Jonsson, Mats, ProfessorMalmström Jonsson, Eva, Professor
FunderSwedish Research Council, 621-2005-6190
QC 201104062011-04-062011-04-062011-04-13Bibliographically approved
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