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Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse: associations with health and risk behaviors
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (Research and Development Centre, Sörmlands County Council, S-631 88 Eskilstuna, Sweden)
Research and Development Centre, Sörmlands County Council, S-631 88 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8234-5461
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 36, no 7-8, 585-595 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors.

Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The response rate was 81.8 %. The pupils were asked among other things about their exposure to child physical abuse, exposure to parental intimate violence, bullying and exposure to being forced to engage in sexual acts. Adjusted analyses were conducted to estimate associations between exposure and illhealth/risk-taking behaviors.

Results: Child physical abuse was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) ranging from 1.6 to 6.2. The associations were stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse with OR ranging from 2.0 to 13.2. Also experiencing parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with the same graded relationship to repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse and the associations increase with the number of concurrent abuse.

Conclusions: This study provides strong indications that child abuse is a serious public health problem based on the clear links seen between abuse and poor health and behavioral problems. Consistent with other studies showing a graded relationship between experiences of abuse and poor health/risk-taking behaviors our study shows poorer outcomes for repeated and multiple abuse. Thus, our study calls for improvement of methods of comprehensive assessments, interventions and treatment in all settings where professionals meet young people.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 36, no 7-8, 585-595 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67219DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.05.006ISI: 000307913700004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67219DiVA: diva2:408345
Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Child Physical Abuse: Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk‐taking
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child Physical Abuse: Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk‐taking
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. The focus has been on examining the characteristics of cases reported to the police as well as self-reported CPA, prevalence of CPA and finally associations between CPA and health-problems/risk-taking behaviors among adolescents.

Two samples are used in this thesis. The first comprises cases reported to the police during 11 years (n=142) in a Swedish police-district and the second is a population-based youth survey of the total number of pupils in three different school grades (13, 15 and 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden.

Cases of severe abuse constituted 14 % of the total number of cases reported to the police. The main difference between the group of severe cases and the remaining was the higher occurrence of convictions in court in the severe cases and the pattern of reporting to the police. The severe cases were reported by agencies to a greater degree than minor cases. Cases of severe abuse were characterized by an accumulation of risk factors in different areas as perpetrator factors, stress- and strain factors, factors of insufficient social network and finally child-related factors.

In the cross-sectional study a prevalence of 15 % was found for self-reported CPA (n=8 494). There were associations between risk factors in different areas and abuse and there was a dos-response relationship between risks and reported abuse. It was shown that children who reported parental intimate-partner violence were at considerably higher risk for CPA than other children and that only 7 % of the children exposed to violence had disclosed this to authorities.

The study of associations between health and risk-taking behaviors, were performed among the 15 and 17 years old pupils (n=5 933). Associations with health-problems and risk-taking behaviors were shown and the associations became stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse (parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts) and the associations increased with the number of concurrent abuse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 93 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1234
Keyword
Child physical abuse; prevalence; risk factors; associations with health-problems and risk-taking behaviors; multiple abuse
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67222 (URN)978‐91‐7393‐206‐6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-29, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2011-04-04Bibliographically approved

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Annerbäck, Eva-MariaSvedin, Carl GöranWingren, GunGustafsson, Per
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Child and Adolescent PsychiatryFaculty of Health SciencesWork and Environmental ScienceDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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