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Form and Function of Coastal Areas
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Miljöanalys)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Coastal waters have high biological productivity and provide goods and services with a high monetary value. Coasts are used by many different stakeholders and are often densely populated. These factors put coastal ecosystems under heavy environmental pressure and place high demands on politicians and coastal managers, who need suitable tools to facilitate decision-making. Geographic information systems and predictive mass balance models are two such tools, and the form of coastal areas (morphometry) is an important component of both tools in coastal management.

In this thesis it was shown that the form and function of coastal areas are interrelated in a number of ways. Morphometric parameters can be used to identify coastal areas that are more sensitive to pollution, or that potentially have higher ecological value; and morphometric analysis is an essential part of mass balance modeling. New ways of using morphometry for estimation of benthic production potential were presented and tested. It was shown that there are great differences in benthic production potential among Swedish coastal areas and regions. Different morphometric descriptors of openness were developed and tested; these can be used in habitat mapping or for prediction of sediment bottom types. Significant correlation was found between the morphometric properties of coastal areas, the proportion of accumulation bottom areas and the critical depth. Statistical models for prediction of accumulation bottom areas and critical depth were also obtained using multiple regression. Large differences were found in empirical values of bottom dynamic conditions from two different sources. Algorithms from a well tested mass balance model were adapted for modeling salt in the Baltic Sea. This enabled calculation of water exchange between five basins on a monthly time scale, which can be of use in future modeling studies. The study included morphometric analysis for structuring the model and for calculation of input data.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 52 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 819
Keyword [en]
Coastal areas, morphometry, geographic information systems, GIS, ecological value, wave exposure, sediment, bottom dynamic conditions, mass balance modeling
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150645ISBN: 978-91-554-8057-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-150645DiVA: diva2:408137
Public defence
2011-05-20, Axel Hambergsalen, Department of Earth Sciences, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-27 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2011-05-05
List of papers
1. Morphometric Classification and GIS-Based Data Analysis in Coastal Modeling and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morphometric Classification and GIS-Based Data Analysis in Coastal Modeling and Management
2011 (English)In: Open Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1876-3251, Vol. 5, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes how morphometric classification (based on openness, form, depth and size) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used for possible identification of coastal areas sensitive to pollution. Generalized maps of key water properties are then created for as large parts of Europe as possible using large amounts of empirical data. These maps give an overview of the general spatial pattern of the presented properties and offer identification of highly polluted coastal areas. They also provide input and reference data for two dynamic ecosystem models (CoastWeb and CoastMab) suitable for in-depth studies of individual coastal areas or regions. A modeling case study of coastal eutrophication is presented to illustrate that these general models may be practically applied for simulations related to the response of coastal ecosystems to various remedial scenarios using only the data presented in the morphometric coastal classification system and in the generalized overview maps.

Keyword
Coastal areas, morphometric classification, GIS, maps, ecosystem modeling
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150360 (URN)10.2174/1876325101105010001 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-03-29 Created: 2011-03-29 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
2. Assessment of Ecological Value of Coastal Areas Using Morphometry and Secchi Depth: A Case Study with Data from the Swedish Coast
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Ecological Value of Coastal Areas Using Morphometry and Secchi Depth: A Case Study with Data from the Swedish Coast
2010 (English)In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, Vol. 26, no 3, 429-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coastal morphometry has importance for water exchange and affects primary production potential, in that the bathymetric shape of a coastal area determines how much of the bottom area is reached by sunlight and hence is available for benthic primary production. In this paper, morphometric production potential, here defined as the bottom area above the Secchi depth, was assessed with the use of geographical information systems, morphometric data, and Secchi depth data, exemplified with data from the whole Swedish coast. The spatial distribution of ecologically important areas with high morphometric production potential was quite even along the Swedish coastline, but some regional differences were found. A linear relationship was found between the Secchi depth and the bottom area above the Secchi depth for the Swedish coast. An equation for calculation of the bottom area below/above a certain depth in lakes was used to calculate the area above the Secchi depth for 541 coastal areas, and the results were compared with the corresponding area values extracted from hypsographic data. This test yielded good correlation (r2 = 0.87), and the equation was found to be useful also in coastal areas (e.g., when detailed hypsographs are not available).

Keyword
Benthic production potential, bathymetric shape, form factor, GIS, Sweden
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-136415 (URN)10.2112/08-1136.1 (DOI)000277947000005 ()
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2011-04-28Bibliographically approved
3. Determining openness and energy filtering in coastal areas using geographic information systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determining openness and energy filtering in coastal areas using geographic information systems
2011 (English)In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 91, no 2, 177-186 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The filter factor is a type of wave fetch index for whole coastal areas used to describe the sheltering effect from islands. Apart from fetch, it also includes the cross-sectional areas between the studied area and the surroundings. Previously, the filter factor has shown correlation with, e.g., bottom dynamic conditions and deep water exchange, but has been difficult to calculate. In this paper, it is shown how to calculate the filter factor using modern Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Different aspects of the filter factor, such as the used number of lines, maximum line length, etc., were investigated using data from Swedish coastal areas. Possible improvements and simplifications were found that can both increase the correlation with bottom dynamic conditions and deep water exchange, but also substantially decrease the computation time. An alternative approach that calculates the proportion of islands in the outside region was also developed and tested with good results.

Keyword
GIS, coastal morphology, wave energy, fetch, filter factor, bottom dynamic conditions
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141130 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2010.10.018 (DOI)000286715500002 ()
Available from: 2011-01-11 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2011-04-28Bibliographically approved
4. Assessment of the Relationship between Coastal Morphometry, Bottom Dynamic Conditions and the Critical Depth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the Relationship between Coastal Morphometry, Bottom Dynamic Conditions and the Critical Depth
2011 (English)In: Air, Soil and Water Research, ISSN 1178-6221, Vol. 4, 31-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coastal sediment can be classified by functional bottom type, depending on whether cohesive fine material is eroded (E), transported (T) or deposited/accumulated (A) there. The assessment of such bottom dynamic conditions is useful in many ways, including as a fundament for structuring mass balance models. In this paper more than 200 recently investigated Swedish coastal areas were analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS). Statistical relationships between morphometry, the average proportion of A-areas (BA) and the average critical depth (DTA), which separates ET-areas from A-areas, were investigated. Many morphometric parameters showed significant correlation with both BA and DTA and multiple regression models were obtained that could explain much of the variation in these parameters. Parameters describing sheltering effects from islands, mean depth and mean slope were important in this context. Large differences were found in empirical BA-values from two different sources. Furthermore, a new empirical dataset was presented for 209 Swedish coastal areas.

Keyword
coastal area, bottom dynamic conditions, sediment, critical depth, morphometry, GIS
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150376 (URN)10.4137/ASWR.S6918 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-03-29 Created: 2011-03-29 Last updated: 2011-10-14Bibliographically approved
5. Water Transport and Water Retention in Five Connected Subbasins in the Baltic Sea: Simulations using a General Mass-Balance Modeling Approach for Salt and Substances
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water Transport and Water Retention in Five Connected Subbasins in the Baltic Sea: Simulations using a General Mass-Balance Modeling Approach for Salt and Substances
2010 (English)In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, Vol. 26, no 2, 241-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents monthly budgets for water and salt in the Baltic Sea and its five main sub-basins, the Baltic Proper, the Bothnian Sea, the Bothnian Bay, the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga. This process-based mass-balance modeling uses empirical data (from HELCOM) for the period 1997 to 2005. Previous models of this kind generally use water temperature data to differentiate between different water layers. This model (CoastMab) uses sedimentological criteria related to the theoretical wave base to differentiate between vertical layers. CoastMab stems from a model development in aquatic radioecology and it has previously been validated for many different substances (radionuclides, metals, nutrients, suspended particulate matter and salt) for lakes and relatively small coastal areas but not for such a large and complex system of interconnected basins as the Baltic Sea. New morphometric data for the Baltic Sea and the defined sub-basins and new hypsographic and volume curves based on digitized bathymetric data are also presented and used in this work. The aim has been to present data on the fluxes of water to the system, precipitation and the theoretical retention times for water and salt in the defined sub-basins since those values give fundamental information on how the system reacts to changes in, e.g., nutrient loading. The idea with this modeling, and the results presented in this work, is that these water fluxes, water retention rates and the algorithms to quantify vertical mixing and diffusion should be structured in such a manner that the model also can be used to quantify fluxes of nutrients and toxins. This places certain demands on the structure of the model, which may be different from physical oceanographic models, e.g., in quantifying sedimentation, resuspension, mixing and diffusion and in the requirements regarding the accessibility of the necessary driving variables.

Keyword
salinity; Baltic Sea; transport processes; general mass-balance model; water retention time; water retention rate; water fluxes; mixing; diffusion
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sedimentology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121354 (URN)10.2112/08-1082.1 (DOI)000276328400005 ()
Available from: 2010-03-22 Created: 2010-03-22 Last updated: 2011-04-28Bibliographically approved

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