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The sleep of the child – the parent's stressor?: A study within the ABIS project
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Poor sleep and chronic stress are important factors detrimental to physical and mental health. This is no less true for children than for adults. Therefore, investigating sleep and stress patterns in early life is important. Since children live in a close relationship to their parents, the sleep and stress patterns of the parents is likely to influence those of the children. In this thesis, the relationships between parent-reported child sleep quality, self-reported parent sleep quality, and parenting stress as measured by the Swedish Parenting Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) have been investigated. Several background factors have been tested for associations to parent and child sleep quality and parenting stress, and their possible involvement in the associations between sleep and stress measures has been investigated. The hypotheses were that child sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress show concurrent intermeasure associations and longitudinal intrameasure stability, which should also generate longitudinal intermeasure associations. The participants were parents of about 10000 children in the ABIS study, born in south-east Sweden in the years 1997-99. Questionnaires were gathered at birth and at 1, 3 and 5 years and data analyzed statistically The hypotheses were supported: sleep and stress measures showed strong concurrent associations and longitudinal stability. However, parental sleep quality seems to explain most of the child sleep-parenting stress association.

All background factors except child gender showed some level of association to sleep and stress measures at least at some age. No background factor had any effect on the associations between sleep and stress measures when included in logistic regression. Our data does not support the hypothesis that night feedings condition the child to night wakings. A possible predictor of persistent sleep problems is found in uncertainty about the cause of night wakings.

To conclude, parent-perceived child sleep quality has a connection to parenting stress which in our data is mainly explained through parental sleep quality. This is important to consider when advising parents that complain about their child/ren's sleep quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 83 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Health Sciences. Thesis, ISSN 1100-6013 ; 108
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67181ISBN: 978-91-7393-4916-OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67181DiVA: diva2:407892
Presentation
2009-11-26, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-01 Created: 2011-04-01 Last updated: 2011-04-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Parent perceptions of child sleep: a study of 10 000 Swedish children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parent perceptions of child sleep: a study of 10 000 Swedish children
2008 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 97, no 12, 1631-1639 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To gather normative data on parent-reported child sleep and investigate what influences it.

Methods: Subjective sleep report data on night wakings, sleep quality, bedtime and risetime were gathered from parents of around 10 000 children from birth to age 5 in a cohort questionnaire study. The data were analysed for trends, and sleep measures were compared with background factors such as child temperament, foreign origin, family situation, parents age and education and night feedings.

Results: The population trends were towards improved sleep with increasing age. Individual sleep patterns show some stability. Reports of frequent night wakings and low sleep quality (LSQ) were strongly associated with each other within and between the age groups (odds ratio [OR] 2.8-60.2, p < 0.001). Perception of poor child sleep was influenced by child temperament at ages 1 and 3 (OR 2.2-4.4, p < 0.001), foreign origin at age 1 (OR 2.1-2.3, p < 0.001), and to some extent, parents age and education at ages 1-3 (OR 1.4-2.1, p < 0.05 or stronger), but not by single parent status or infant night feedings. Reporting multiple or unspecific causes of night wakings was associated with reporting LSQ (OR 1.8-4.7, p < 0.05 or stronger).

Conclusion: With increasing age, fewer wakings, improved sleep quality and a more uniform sleep schedule seem normal. However, frequent wakings and low quality sleep at early ages seem surprisingly stable. A difficult temperament and foreign origin were associated with lower quality sleep and more frequent wakings in early ages, whereas being a single parent was not. Finally, night feeding does not seem to condition children to frequent wakings.

Keyword
Background, Child, Parent, Sleep, Trends
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16169 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00967.x (DOI)
Note
The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Peder Palmstierna, Anneli Sepa and Johnny Ludvigsson, Parent perceptions of child sleep: a study of 10 000 Swedish children, 2008, ACTA PAEDIATRICA, (97), 12, 1631-1639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00967.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from: 2009-01-16 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2011-04-01Bibliographically approved
2. Longitudinal associations between child sleep, parental sleep, andparenting stress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal associations between child sleep, parental sleep, andparenting stress
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates a possible model for the relationship between child and parental sleep and parenting stress. We performed post-hoc statistical analyses of longitudinal parent questionnaire data, gathered at regular visits to well-child clinics in south-east Sweden or later at home from unselected parents of about 10,000 children at ages 1, 3 and 5 years old, as part of ABIS (All Babies In Southeast Sweden).

Parent-rated child sleep quality and parenting stress as measured by Swedish Parenting Stress Questionnaire at ages 1, 3 and 5 years; and self-reported parental sleep quality at ages 3 and 5 were dichotomised into poor/not poor sleep and high/not high stress. Odds ratios for the interrelationships between measures were obtained first by cross-tabulation two by two, then by logistic regression including all concurrent and preceding measures. The association of child sleep quality with parenting stress observed at age 3 with crosstabulation was non-significant with logistic regression, whereas the associations of child sleep quality with parental sleep quality and of parental sleep quality with parenting stress remained strong at all ages with odds ratios of about 16-20 or 4.5, respectively (p < 0.001). All measures also showed stability over time, especially parenting stress. Child temperament rating and social support dissatisfaction showed strong associations to sleep/stress measures but including them in logistic regressions did not influence the above relationships. Our data support a model where the associations between poor child sleep and high parenting stress, within and between age groups, is mainly explained by poor parental sleep.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67178 (URN)
Available from: 2011-04-01 Created: 2011-04-01 Last updated: 2011-04-01Bibliographically approved

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