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Population Genetic Structure of Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix): From a Large to a Fine Scale Perspective
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a bird species with a lek mating system found in the Palearctic boreal taiga. It is assumed that it has a continuous distribution along Scandinavia and Siberia, whereas in Central Europe it has declined during the last decades. The primary objective of this thesis was to obtain a deeper understanding of the history, systematic classification and the genetic structure of black grouse on different geographical scales using microsatellites and control region mtDNA sequences (CR). I determined how much the mating system, habitat fragmentation and historical population processes have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species. Phylogeographical results are consistent with a demographic population expansion, and the patterns of postglacial dispersal suggest that a glacial refugium was located somewhere in central Asia, and from there black grouse spread out to Europe following the retreat of glacial ice sheets. I suggest that the two European black grouse subspecies, T. t. Tetrix and T. t. britannicus correspond to only one subspecies: T. t. tetrix, and that this lineage has diverged from T.t. viridanus, a subspecies found in Kazakhstan. The British population is significantly divergent from the remaining Eurasian samples for microsatellites but it is not for mtDNA. Therefore, they should regard as a separate Management Unit and not as a subspecies. Furthermore, British black grouse occur in three independent genetic units, corresponding to Wales, northern England/southern Scotland and northern Scotland. There was also genetic structure within Sweden. Habitat fragmentation is the main cause of population genetic structure in southern Swedish black grouse. In contrast, low levels of genetic differentiation and high connectivity were found in northern Sweden due to female-biased dispersal. On a finer geographical scale, I found genetic differences between leks due to a mixture of related and unrelated individuals within leks. However, mean relatedness values hardly differed from zero. Some leks were similar to one another and I interpret this as a result of variation in local reproductive success and philopatry. These factors would cause genetic structuring but this by itself would not reveal that kin selection is operating within black grouse leks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 47 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 816
Keyword [en]
black grouse, control region, demographic expansion, kin selection, lek, microsatellites, non-invasive sampling, postglacial colonisation, philopatry, phylogeography, sex-biased dispersal, spatial genetics, subspecies, suture zone, refugia
National Category
Biological Sciences Biological Systematics
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150117ISBN: 978-91-554-8048-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-150117DiVA: diva2:406478
Public defence
2011-05-13, Zootissalen, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2011-05-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Population history and subspecies status of black grouse
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population history and subspecies status of black grouse
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150115 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2011-05-05
2. Genetic structure among black grouse in Britain: implications for designing conservation units
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic structure among black grouse in Britain: implications for designing conservation units
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 14, no 4, 400-408 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black grouse in Britain have faced contraction of their range and have declined in numbers during the recent decades. As such, the species is a conservation concern in the UK. In order to aid conservation decisions, the terms Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU) and Management Unit (MU) have been proposed. An ESU is an independently evolving evolutionary lineage defined by being reciprocally monophyletic for mitochondrial alleles, and which is significantly different from other lineages with regard to nuclear alleles, whereas an MU is operationally defined by only the latter criterion. Using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci, we failed to find evidence that British black grouse is an ESU. However, British black grouse are sufficiently different from continental black grouse both with respect to mitochondrial and nuclear data to regard them as a separate MU. Furthermore, we present genetic data which suggest that British black grouse presently occur in what are probably three demographically independent units (roughly corresponding to Wales, northern England/southern Scotland and northern Scotland), which are genetically differentiated. The two southern units (Wales and northern England/southern Scotland) have lower genetic diversity and show signs of having lost genetic variability

Keyword
Management Unit, Evolutionary Significant Unit, population structure
National Category
Biological Systematics Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150110 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00436.x (DOI)000293173900013 ()
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2015-07-24Bibliographically approved
3. Genetic structure of black grouse in Sweden: consequence of historic or contemporary patterns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic structure of black grouse in Sweden: consequence of historic or contemporary patterns
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150116 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2011-05-05
4. Maintenance of gene flow by female-biased dispersal of black grouse, Tetrao tetrix in northern Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maintenance of gene flow by female-biased dispersal of black grouse, Tetrao tetrix in northern Sweden
2012 (English)In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 153, no 4, 1127-1139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sex-biased dispersal is a common phenomenon in most birds. In general, males breed at or near their site of birth while most of the females disperse. We investigated the dispersal patterns and genetic structure of lekking Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix based on ten microsatellite loci. Data for 469 individuals from 25 localities spaced from 45 to 558 km apart revealed low levels of genetic differentiation and high connectivity among studied sites due to female-biased dispersal. The spatial distribution of the genetic variation did not follow an isolation by distance pattern neither for females nor for males. STRUCTURE identified three clusters of male individuals but without any geographical pattern. Only one cluster was identified for females. Several tests of sex-biased dispersal were executed. Most of them showed no difference between sexes, but the mean assignment index and F IS showed a statistically significant female-biased dispersal. Therefore, we consider that the northern Swedish Black Grouse population is a panmictic population. The amount of gene flow throughout time has been consistent with dispersal and with no strong effect of forest fragmentation in the region.

Abstract [de]

Geschlechterunterschiede bei der Auswanderung aus dem Heimatterritorium und Ausbreitung gibt es bei den meisten Vogelarten. Üblicherweise brüten Männchen in der Nähe ihres Geburtsorts, während Weibchen vermehrt abwandern. Wir untersuchten Muster in der Verbreitung und die genetische Struktur im Lek balzender Birkhühner Tetrao tetrix anhand von zehn Mikrosatelliten-Loci. Daten von 469 Individuen aus 25 Gebieten, die zwischen 45 und 558 km voneinander entfernt lagen, zeigten geringe genetische Differenzierung und hohe Konnektivität zwischen den Gebieten, gewährleistet durch die Ausbreitung der Weibchen. Die räumliche Verteilung der genetischen Variation zeigte keine Isolation durch hohe Entfernungen, weder für Männchen noch für Weibchen. Das Programm STRUCTURE fand drei Cluster für männliche Individuen, die nicht mit geographischen Mustern übereinstimmten. Bei Weibchen konnte nur ein Cluster identifiziert werden. Wir führten verschiedene Tests für geschlechtsabhängige Verbreitung durch. Die meisten fanden keinen Unterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern, aber der ‘mean assignment index’ und FIS zeigten signifikant stärkere Ausbreitung der Weibchen. Daraus schließen wir, dass die nordschwedische Birkhuhn Population panmiktisch ist. Der genetische Austausch der Populationen konnte stets durch Verteilung weiblicher Individuen erklärt werden, während die Fragmentierung der Wälder in der Region keinen großen Einfluss gehabt zu haben scheint.

Keyword
microsatellites, sex-biased dispersal, philopatry
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150111 (URN)10.1007/s10336-012-0844-0 (DOI)000308823100013 ()
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2015-08-11Bibliographically approved
5. Fine scale genetic structure in the lek-breeding black grouse Tetrao tetrix
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fine scale genetic structure in the lek-breeding black grouse Tetrao tetrix
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150113 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2011-05-18Bibliographically approved

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