Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Chalmers.
Chalmers.
2011 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 36, no 2, 932-941 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates system aspects of biorefineries based on biomass gasification integrated with pulp and paper production. As a case the Billerud Karlsborg mill is used. Two biomass gasification concepts are considered: BIGDME (biomass integrated gasification dimethyl ether production) and BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle). The systems analysis is made with respect to economic performance, global CO2 emissions and primary energy use. As reference cases. BIGDME and BIGCC integrated with district heating are considered. Biomass gasification is shown to be potentially profitable for the mill. The results are highly dependent on assumed energy market parameters, particularly policy support. With strong policies promoting biofuels or renewable electricity, the calculated opportunity to invest in a gasification-based biorefinery exceeds investment cost estimates from the literature. When integrated with district heating the BIGDME case performs better than the BIGCC case, which shows high sensitivity to heat price and annual operating time. The BIGCC cases show potential to contribute to decreased global CO2 emissions and energy use, which the BIGDME cases do not, mainly due to high biomass demand. As biomass is a limited resource, increased biomass use due to investments in gasification plants will lead to increased use of fossil fuels elsewhere in the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. , 2011. Vol. 36, no 2, 932-941 p.
Keyword [en]
Biomass gasification, Biorefinery, Energy systems analysis, Biofuels, Pulp and paper production
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67024DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.12.017ISI: 000288102600026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67024DiVA: diva2:406287
Note
Original Publication: Elisabeth Wetterlund, Karin Pettersson and Simon Harvey, Systems analysis of integrating biomass gasification with pulp and paper production - Effects on economic performance, CO2 emissions and energy use, 2011, ENERGY, (36), 2, 932-941. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.12.017 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2012-02-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. System studies of forest-based biomass gasification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System studies of forest-based biomass gasification
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bioenergy will play an important role in reaching the EU targets for renewable energy. Sweden, with abundant forest resources and a well-established forest industry, has a key position regarding modern biomass use. Biomass gasification (BMG) offers several advantages compared to biomass combustion-based processes, the most prominent being the possibility for downstream conversion to motor fuels (biofuels), and the potential for higher electrical efficiency if used for electricity generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC). BMG-based processes in general have a considerable surplus of heat, which facilitates integration with district heating or industrial processes.

In this thesis integration of large-scale BMG, for biofuel or electricity production, with other parts of the energy system is analysed. Focus is on forest-based biomass, with the analysis including techno-economic aspects as well as considerations regarding effects on global fossil CO2 emissions. The analysis has been done using two approaches – bottom-up with detailed case studies of BMG integrated with local systems, and top-down with BMG studied on a European scale.

The results show that BMG-based biofuel or electricity production can constitute economically interesting alternatives for integration with district heating or pulp and paper production. However, due to uncertainties concerning future energy market conditions and due to the large capital commitment of investment in BMG technology, forceful economic support policies will be needed if BMG is a desired route for the future energy system, unless oil and electricity prices are high enough to provide sufficient incentives for BMG-based biofuel or electricity production. While BMG-based biofuel production could make integration with either district heating or pulp and paper production economically attractive, BIGCC shows considerably more promise if integrated with pulp and paper production than with district heating.

Bioenergy use is often considered CO2-neutral, because uptake in growing plants is assumed to fully balance the CO2 released when the biomass is combusted. As one of the alternatives in this thesis, biomass is viewed as limited. This means that increased use of bioenergy in one part of the energy system limits the amount of biomass available for other applications, thus increasing the CO2 emissions for those applications. The results show that when such marginal effects of increased biomass use are acknowledged, the CO2 mitigation potential for BMG-based biofuel production becomes highly uncertain. In fact, most of the BMG-based biofuel cases studied in this thesis would lead to an increase rather than the desired decrease of global CO2 emissions, when considering biomass as limited.

Abstract [sv]

Bioenergi spelar en viktig roll för att nå EU:s mål för förnybar energi. Sverige har med sina goda skogstillgångar och sin väletablerade skogsindustri en nyckelposition vad gäller modern bioenergianvändning. Förgasning av biomassa har flera fördelar jämfört med förbränningsbaserade processer - i synnerhet möjligheten att konvertera lågvärdiga råvaror till exempelvis fordonsdrivmedel. Används gasen istället för elproduktion kan en högre verkningsgrad nås om gasen används i en kombicykel, jämfört med i en konventionell ångturbincykel. De förgasningsbaserade processerna har i allmänhet ett betydande överskott av värme, vilket möjliggör integrering med fjärrvärmesystem eller industriella processer.

I denna avhandling analyseras integrering av storskalig biomassaförgasning för drivmedelseller elproduktion, med andra delar av energisystemet. Skogsbaserad biomassa är i fokus och analysen behandlar såväl teknoekonomiska aspekter, som effekter på globala fossila CO2-utsläpp. Forskningen har gjorts på två olika systemnivåer - dels i form av detaljerade fallstudier av biomassaförgasning integrerat med lokala svenska system, dels i form av systemstudier på europeisk nivå.

Resultaten visar att förgasningsbaserad biodrivmedels- eller elproduktion kan komma att utgöra ekonomiskt intressanta alternativ för integrering med fjärrvärme eller massa- och papperstillverkning. På grund av osäkerheter i fråga om framtida energimarknadsförhållanden och på grund av de höga kapitalkostnaderna som investering i förgasningsanläggningar innebär, kommer kraftfulla ekonomiska styrmedel krävas om biomassaförgasning är en önskad utvecklingsväg för framtidens energisystem, såvida inte olje- och elpriserna är höga nog att i sig skapa tillräckliga incitament. Medan förgasningsbaserad drivmedelsproduktion kan vara ekonomiskt attraktivt att integrera med såväl fjärrvärme som med massa- och papperstillverkning, framstår förgasningsbaserad elproduktion som betydligt mer lovande vid integrering med massa- och papperstillverkning.

Användning av bioenergi anses ofta vara CO2-neutralt, eftersom upptaget av CO2 i växande biomassa antas balansera den CO2 som frigörs när biomassan förbränns. Som ett av alternativen i denna avhandling ses biomassa som begränsad, vilket innebär att ökad användning av bioenergi i en del av energisystemet begränsar den tillgängliga mängden biomassa för andra användare, vilket leder till ökade CO2-utsläpp för dessa. Resultaten visar att när hänsyn tas till denna typ av marginella effekter av ökad biomassaanvändning, blir potentialen för minskade globala CO2-utsläpp med hjälp av förgasningsbaserade tillämpningar mycket osäker. I själva verket skulle de flesta av de förgasningsbaserade drivmedel som studerats i denna avhandling leda till en utsläppsökning, snarare än den önskade minskningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 79 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1429
Keyword
Biomass gasification, second-generation biofuels, global CO2 emissions, energy system optimisation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74576 (URN)978-91-7519-955-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-02, sal ACAS, hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(432 kB)909 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 432 kBChecksum SHA-512
c67a2148f1221f007d64320e471c8eb41c82719717a0c08994e986ce06b49805ea7b0720c4c6435e5a07c744d000393a8daf3f8833348e4c579ea9932446bb11
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Wetterlund, Elisabeth
By organisation
Energy SystemsThe Institute of Technology
In the same journal
Energy
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 909 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 157 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link