Genetic and Molecular Studies of Two Hereditary Skin Disorders
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Monogenic disorders, i.e., disorders caused by mutations in a single gene, are rare and clinically heterogeneous conditions. Identification of the genetic cause of monogenic traits can bring new insights into molecular pathways and disease mechanisms. The aims of the present study were to identify the mutant genes in two autosomal recessive skin disorders and to characterize the functions of the mutated genes. In order to identify candidate genes for the two disorders whole-genome SNP analysis, homozygosity mapping and gene sequencing were used.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a group of disorders characterized by extensive scaling and redness of the skin. A subgroup of ARCI patients (n=27) was selected based on specific ultrastructural aberrations in their skin, revealed by electron microscopy. Mutations were identified in the Ichthyin gene in 93% of the selected patients, indicating a strong association between mutant Ichthyin and the specific morphological abnormalities. Ichthyin mRNA levels were shown to increase during keratinocyte differentiation in cells from healthy and affected individuals. Electron microscopy revealed a localization of ichthyin protein to keratins and desmosomes in epidermis. Staining of epidermal lipids identified aberrant lipid aggregates in skin sections of patients with Ichthyin mutations, indicating a role for Ichthyin in epidermal lipid metabolism.
In twelve KLICK syndrome patients with ichthyosis, palmoplantar keratoderma and keratotic striae on joints, a single-nucleotide deletion was identified in the 5’ region of the proteasome maturation protein (POMP) gene. The deletion caused an increase in the proportion of POMP transcripts with long 5’ UTR’s in patient keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis of differentiated skin cell layers revealed aberrant expression of POMP, proteasome subunits and the skin protein filaggrin in patients. CHOP expression, associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, was increased in the same layers. siRNA silencing of POMP in cell cultures reduced proteasome subunit levels and induced expression of CHOP. The results indicate that the mutation in KLICK patients causes POMP and proteasome insufficiency with subsequent cellular stress.
This study conclusively contributes to the understanding of epidermal physiology and the pathogenesis of two inherited skin diseases.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 57 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 657
Monogenic disorder, autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, KLICK syndrome, Ichthyin, POMP, proteasome, epidermal differentiation
Research subject Clinical Genetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-149185ISBN: 978-91-554-8038-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-149185DiVA: diva2:405933
2011-05-06, Rudbecksalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag Hammarskiölds väg 20, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Kere, Juha, Professor
Dahl, Niklas, ProfessorVahlquist, Anders, Professor
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