Genotyping and Mutation Detection In Situ: Development and application of single-molecule techniques
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The human body is composed of trillions of cells closely working together to maintain a functional organism. Every cell is unique in molecular composition and can acquire genetic variations that might cause it to turn pathological. It is essential to develop improved tools to better understand the development of normal and disease tissue, ideally enabling single-cell expression studies in preserved context of complex tissue with single-nucleotide resolution. This thesis presents the development and application of a new in situ method for localized detection and genotyping of individual transcripts directly in cells and tissues. The described technique utilizes padlock probes and target-primed rolling circle amplification and is highly suitable for sensitive in situ analysis.
First, a new strategy for directed cleavage of single stranded DNA was investigated, e.g. nucleic acid targets with extended 3´ ends, for successful initiation of rolling circle amplification. The presented cleavage strategy is simple and applicable for subsequent enzymatic reactions, e.g. ligation and polymerization. Specific cleavage of long target overhangs was demonstrated in synthetic oligonucleotides and in genomic DNA and the detection efficiency was substantially increased.
For multiplex detection and genotyping of individual transcripts in single cells, a new in situ method was developed. The technique showed a satisfactorily detection efficiency and was later applied as a general mutation analysis tool for detection of KRAS point mutations in complex tumor tissue sections, e.g. formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and cytologic tumor imprints. Mutation status was assessed in patient samples by in situ padlock probe detection and results were confirmed by DNA-sequencing. Finally, the method was adapted for simultaneous detection of individual mRNA molecules and endogenous protein modifications in single cells using padlock probes and in situ PLA. This assay will be useful for gene expression analysis and exploration of new drugs with vague effector sites.
To our knowledge, no other technique exists today that offers in situ transcript detection with single-nucleotide resolution in heterogeneous tissues. The method will especially be suitable for discrimination of highly similar transcripts, e.g. splice variants, SNPs and point mutations, within gene expression studies and for cancer diagnostics.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 59 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 656
padlock probes, in situ, rolling circle amplification, mRNA, genotyping, mutation detection, cancer, tissue sections, diagnostics, single-molecule, single-cell, microscopy
Research subject Molecular Medicine
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-149776ISBN: 978-91-554-8034-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-149776DiVA: diva2:405873
2011-05-06, Rudbecksalen, Rudbecklaboratoriet, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka, Professor
Nilsson, Mats, ProfessorLandegren, Ulf, Professor
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