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Silicon Based Photonic Devices and Their Applications
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The integration of modern electronic devices for information processing is rapidly ap-proaching an interconnect bottleneck. Silicon photonics can be a promising solution forcircumventing this bottleneck, as already being anticipated by many electronics manu-facturers including HP, IBM and Intel. In particular, optical interconnects can expeditedata transfer both between and within microchips. This thesis aims at two basic buildingblocks of silicon photonics: waveguides and resonators and addresses their applications inoptical signal processing and their potential integration with plasmonic devices.

Firstly, the basic theories of waveguide and resonator are introduced. For a singleresonator which acts as a basic signal processing unit, the transmission, phase shift andgroup delay exhibit unique characteristics. Mode splitting is observed in both a singleresonator and a coupled-resonator system. By tuning the configuration of the coupled-resonator system, one can obtain different transmission characteristics for more advancedsignal processing.

Secondly, the fabrication and characterization of silicon waveguides and resonatorsused in the thesis are introduced. The fabrication is carried out with e-beam lithographyfollowed by inductively coupled plasma etching. A vertical grating coupling method isadopted to characterize the transmission spectrum.

Thirdly, based on a single-ring resonator, three kinds of signal processing are ex-perimentally demonstrated: (1) 10 Gb/s format conversion from non-return-to-zero toalternate-mark-inversion signal; (2) a microwave photonic phase shifter providing a tun-able phase shift of 0–4.6 rad for a 20 GHz signal; (3) a delay line providing maximaldelay times of 80 ps, 95 ps, 110 ps and 65 ps, respectively, for signals in return-to-zero,carrier-suppressed return-to-zero, return-to-zero duobinary, and return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion formats.

Fourthly, based on a single-ring resonator with mode-splitting, two kinds of signalprocessing are experimentally demonstrated: (1) a dense wavelength conversion using thefree carrier dispersion effect with a data rate ranging from 500 Mb/s to 5 Gb/s; (2) amaximum pulse advancement of 130 ps for a 1 ns signal pulse.

Since silicon photonic devices are limited by diffraction limit, we further look intotheir hybridization with the diffraction-limit-free plasmonic devices. Two directional cou-plers from a Si photonic waveguide to a hybrid Si-metal plasmonic waveguide and to ametal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide are investigated. The proposed hybrid cou-plers feature a short coupling length, a high coupling efficiency, a high extinction ratioand a low insertion loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , xv, 75 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31290OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-31290DiVA: diva2:403267
Public defence
2011-04-07, Sal / Hall C1, KTH-Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 22, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110315Available from: 2011-03-15 Created: 2011-03-11 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Coupled mode theory analysis of mode-splitting in coupled cavity system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupled mode theory analysis of mode-splitting in coupled cavity system
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2010 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 8, 8367-8382 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze transmission characteristics of two coupled identical cavities, of either standing-wave (SW) or traveling-wave (TW) type, based on temporal coupled mode theory. Mode splitting is observed for both directly (cavity-cavity) and indirectly (cavity-waveguide-cavity) coupled cavity systems. The effects of direct and indirect couplings, if coexisting in one system, can offset each other such that no mode splitting occurs and the original single-cavity resonant frequency is retained. By tuning the configuration of the coupled cavity system, one can obtain different characteristics in transmission spectra, including splitting in transmission, zero transmission, Fano-type transmission, electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT)-like transmission, and electromagnetically-induced-absorption (EIA)-like transmission. It is also interesting to notice that a side-coupled SW cavity system performs similarly to an under-coupled TW cavity. The results are useful for the design of cavity-based devices for integration in nanophotonics.

Keyword
3-DIMENSIONAL PHOTONIC-CRYSTAL, RING RESONATORS, WAVE-GUIDE, FILTERS, LINE, NANOCAVITY, CHIP
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28273 (URN)10.1364/OE.18.008367 (DOI)000276610300087 ()2-s2.0-77950871733 (ScopusID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note
QC 20110114Available from: 2011-01-14 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
2. Fast light in silicon ring resonator with resonance-splitting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast light in silicon ring resonator with resonance-splitting
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2009 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 2, 933-940 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report experimental demonstration of fast light in an over-coupled ultra-compact silicon ring resonator with resonance-splitting. Strong mutual-coupling induced by the grating inside the ring leads to split resonances and accompanying large anomalous dispersion, thus providing a new approach to realizing fast light in the over-coupled region of the ring resonator. In the experiment, a maximum pulse advancement of 130 ps with low distortion is achieved for a 1-ns signal pulse in a 10-mu m-radius silicon ring resonator. The observed pulse advancement agrees well with the theoretical calculation based on coupled mode theory.

Keyword
semiconductor optical amplifiers, slow light, pulse-propagation, superluminal light, wave-guides, group-velocity, fiber, filters
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18180 (URN)000263432300059 ()2-s2.0-58649105304 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
3. All-optical NRZ-to-AMI conversion using linear filtering effect of silicon microring resonator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-optical NRZ-to-AMI conversion using linear filtering effect of silicon microring resonator
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2009 (English)In: Chinese optics letters, ISSN 1671-7694, Vol. 7, no 1, 12-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate 10-Cb/s format conversion from non-return-to-zero (NRZ) to alternate-mark-inversion (AMI) using the linear filtering effect of silicon microring resonator. Our discussion and analysis in simulation further show that a 10-Gb/s AMI signal with good quality can be obtained by a resonator with a notch depth larger than 25 dB when the 3-dB bandwidth is 0.4 nm.

Keyword
self-phase modulation, perot laser-diode, clock recovery, prz, converter, wave-guides, extraction, chip
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18515 (URN)10.3788/col20090701.0012 (DOI)000266970500004 ()2-s2.0-60149105015 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
4. Optically tuneable microwave-photonic phase shifter based on silicon microring resonator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optically tuneable microwave-photonic phase shifter based on silicon microring resonator
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2008 (English)In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Brussels, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a microwave-photonic phase shifter based on a 20-ÎŒm-radius silicon microring resonator, providing a tunable phase shift for a 20-GHz signal in a range of 0-4.6 rad.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brussels: , 2008
Keyword
Microwaves, Optical resonators, Phase shift, Phase shifters, Photonics, Resonators, Micro-ring resonators, Photonic phase shifters, Optical communication
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31434 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2008.4729458 (DOI)2-s2.0-60449091862 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20110315Available from: 2011-03-15 Created: 2011-03-15 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
5. System Performances of On-Chip Silicon Microring Delay Line for RZ, CSRZ, RZ-DB and RZ-AMI Signals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Performances of On-Chip Silicon Microring Delay Line for RZ, CSRZ, RZ-DB and RZ-AMI Signals
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 26, no 21-24, 3744-3751 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We theoretically study the group-delay characteristics of a silicon microring resonator based on the coupled mode theory, and experimentally demonstrate error-free operations of an on-chip delay line using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonator with a 20-mu m radius. Four signals of different modulation formats are examined at 5 Gb/s, including return-to-zero (RZ), carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ), return-to-zero duobinary (RZ-DB), and return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI). Bit error rate (BER) measurements show that the maximal delay times with error-free operations are 80,95, 110, and 65 ps, respectively, corresponding to a fractional group delay of similar to 0.4, similar to 0.5, similar to 0.55, and similar to 0.35. The differences in delay and signal degradations have been investigated based on the signal spectra and pattern dependences. Although the delays are demonstrated in a single ring resonator, the analysis is applicable in slow-light resonance structures such as all-pass filters (APF) and coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW).

Keyword
Delay line, microring resonator, modulation format, silicon photonics, optical modulation formats, wave-guides, slow-light, transmission, absorption, photonics, duobinary, buffers
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-18164 (URN)10.1109/jlt.2008.2005510 (DOI)000263225000028 ()2-s2.0-60949095648 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
6. Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring
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2008 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversions in a 10 mu m radius resonance-split silicon microring resonator based on free carrier dispersion effect. The split resonance is caused by the mutual coupling between the two countertraveling modes inside the ring resonator. Dense wavelength conversions are performed at data rates from 500 Mbytes/s to 5 Gbytes/s and a dual-channel wavelength multicasting is realized at a data rate of 1.25 Gbytes/s. The resonance splitting phenomenon opens up opportunities to convert more closely spaced wavelengths, thus effectively increasing the system capacity.

Keyword
ring resonators, wave-guides, broad-band, chip
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-17806 (URN)10.1063/1.2976123 (DOI)000259011900013 ()2-s2.0-51349145558 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
7. Asymmetric plasmonic-dielectric coupler with short coupling length, high extinction ratio, and low insertion loss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asymmetric plasmonic-dielectric coupler with short coupling length, high extinction ratio, and low insertion loss
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2010 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 35, no 19, 3153-3155 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Asymmetric directional coupling between a hybrid plasmonic waveguide with subwavelength field confinement and a conventional dielectric waveguide is investigated. The proposed hybrid coupler features short coupling length, high coupling efficiency, high extinction ratio, and low insertion loss; it can also be integrated into a silicon-based platform. This coupler can be potentially adopted for signal routing between plasmonic waveguides and dielectric waveguides in photonic integrated circuits. Furthermore, it can be exploited to efficiently excite hybrid plasmonic modes with conventional dielectric modes.

Keyword
SLOT WAVE-GUIDE, SUBWAVELENGTH CONFINEMENT, SILICON
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26293 (URN)000282374800001 ()2-s2.0-78149245628 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20101229Available from: 2010-12-29 Created: 2010-11-21 Last updated: 2011-05-23Bibliographically approved
8. Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide
2010 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, no 15, 15531-15543 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vertical directional coupling between a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguide and a conventional dielectric waveguide is investigated. The coupling length, extinction ratio, insertion loss and coupling efficiency of the hybrid coupler are analyzed. As an example, when the separation between the two waveguides is 250 nm, a maximum coupling efficiency of 73%, an insertion loss of -1.4 dB and an extinction ratio of 16 dB can be achieved at a coupling length of 4.5 mu m at 1.55 mu m wavelength. A particular feature of this hybrid coupler is that it is highly tolerant to the structural parameters of the plasmonic waveguide and the misalignment between the two waveguides. The performance of this hybrid coupler as a TM polarizer is also analyzed and a maximum extinction ratio of 44 dB and an insertion loss of -0.18 dB can be obtained. The application of this hybrid coupler includes the signal routing between plasmonic waveguides and dielectric waveguides in photonic integrated circuits and the polarization control between TE and TM modes. In addition, it provides an approach for efficiently exciting MIM plasmonic modes with conventional dielectric modes. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26872 (URN)000280693300029 ()2-s2.0-77954950466 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20101201Available from: 2010-12-01 Created: 2010-11-29 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved

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