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Opposition and Adjustment to Industrial‘Greening’: The Swedish Forest Industry’s (Re)Actions regarding Energy Transition – 1989-2009
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Motstånd och anpassning till ökade miljökrav : Svensk skogsindustris (re)aktioner beträffande energiomställningen, 1989-2009 (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This thesis analyses how the Swedish forest industry has (re)acted regarding the energy transition and, in particular, regarding the reconstruction of the electricity and forest resources in Sweden during the 1989–2009 period. The thesis consists of four papers that analyse how the Swedish forest industry by means of energy management practices at individual pulp and/or paper mills, in corporate strategies performed by CEOs and boards of directors, and via its industry association, has dealt with mounting political and public demands for the industry to become ‘greener’. At the heart of the thesis are issues related to the industry’s substantial use and management of electricity and forest resources.

This thesis focuses on the patterns of conflict and reconstruction that various forest industry representatives (e.g., CEOs) and entities (e.g., mills and resources) have experienced in relation to opposing and/or adjusting to the energy transition. The Swedish forest industry constitutes an illuminating case in a wider research context of how an industry (re)acts regarding increasing environmental and energy-related demands concerning its strategic resources. By using multidisciplinary theoretical concepts when analysing industrial change, this thesis demonstrates the industry’s wider embeddedness in science, policy, and material resources.

Abstract [sv]

Den här sammanläggningsavhandlingen analyserar hur svensk skogsindustri (re)agerat beträffande energiomställningen och särskilt omvandlingen av elektricitets- och skogsresurserna i Sverige, 1989-2009. Avhandlingen består av fyra artiklar vilka analyserar hur svensk skogsindustri, genom energiledning i massa- och pappersbruk, i företagsledningars koncernstrategier, och genom branschorganisationen, hanterat de ökade miljökrav som politiker och allmänhet riktat mot branschen. I centrum för avhandlingen står särskilt frågor relaterade till branschens omfattande användning och hantering av elektricitet och skogsresurser. Mer specifikt fokuserar avhandlingen på de konflikter och förändringar som skogsindustrin genomgått som ett led i motståndet och/eller anpassningen till energiomställningen.

Den svenska skogsindustrin utgör ett belysande fall på hur en energiintensiv bransch (re)agerar på ökade miljömässiga krav riktade mot dess energi- och naturresursanvändning. Avhandlingen kan därmed även bidra med kunskap om hur en bransch hanterar förändringskrav riktade mot dess strategiska nyckelresurser. Genom att analysera industriell förändring med multidisciplinära teoretiska begrepp tydliggörs branschens inbäddning i vetenskap, politik, och materiella resurser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 90 + papers 1-4 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 526
Keyword [en]
Forest industry, energy, electricity, forests, industrial greening, industrial change, actor network theory, sociology of industry, strategic management, science and technology studies
Keyword [sv]
Skogsindustri, energi, elektricitet, skog, industriell miljöanpassning, industriell förändring, aktörsnätverksteori, branschsociologi, strategiforskning, teknik- och vetenskapsstudier
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66267ISBN: 978-91-7393-216-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-66267DiVA: diva2:403044
Public defence
2011-04-01, Val, Hus Vallfarten, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exploring energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: Volume 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: Volume 3
2009 (English)In: Act! Innovate! Deliver! Reducing energy demand sustainably / [ed] Christel Broussous and Corisande Jover, eceee , 2009, 1051-1058 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish pulp- and paper industry is a considerable user of energy, accounting for about 50 percent of the Swedish industrial energy use and 2 percent of the EU-25 industrial energy use. Its high energy use makes this industry particularly important in terms of energy efficiency. Previous research has emphasised the need for companies’ to have well functioning energy management practices in order to increase energy efficiency. This paper describes and analyses energy management practices in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. A questionnaire was sent out to the person in charge of the energy issue at all Swedish mills and 40 replies were received, a response frequency of 68 percent. The results show that the energy issue has been given increasingly higher priority over the past 10 years. However, in spite of this, overall results from the questionnaire show that there is still potential for improving energy management in the studied industry. More than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy, and less than half of the studied mills have an energy strategy covering at least five years. These results indicate that the implementation of a long-term energy strategy in this energy intensive industry, in combination with other means, could be of utmost importance for increasing energy efficiency. In conclusion, based on the research results presented in this paper, a different energy policy design for the industry seems to be needed, which could be very fruitful if it focuses on establishing more efficient energy management practices and includes all energy carriers. Moreove, the fact that more than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy and the fact that the Swedish EMS standard does not require such a strategy to be formulated indicates the need for further studies regarding a plausible inclusion of a long-term energy strategy in the EMS standard.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
eceee, 2009
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52032 (URN)978-91-633-4454-1 (ISBN)
Conference
eceee 2009 Summer Study : Act! Innovate! Deliver! Reducing energy demand sustainably, 1–6 June, La Colle sur Loup, France
Available from: 2009-11-30 Created: 2009-11-30 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
2. Material resources in strategy formation processes: Translations of electricity and forest assets in three Swedish forest industry companies, 1990-2008
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material resources in strategy formation processes: Translations of electricity and forest assets in three Swedish forest industry companies, 1990-2008
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study examines the process whereby resources, long perceived as static, are reconstructed as increasingly dynamic in their characteristics, uses, and values, and considers how this process can be analyzed and understood theoretically. The paper examines how three energy-intensive Swedish forest industry companies have managed their electricity and forest resources. The author argues that Barney and Hesterley’s (2005) VRIO criteria treat resources as static, and that constructivist actor–network theory may be a more productive way of understanding the ongoing process of resource management. This study demonstrates how the management of electricity and forest resources changed not only between companies in the industry, but also within single firms, over the studied period.

Keyword
resource-based view; VRIO, resources; actor–network theory; translation; forest industry
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66264 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
3. Between industrial modernity and ecological modernization?: The Swedish forest industry’s response to increased environmental demands regarding electricity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between industrial modernity and ecological modernization?: The Swedish forest industry’s response to increased environmental demands regarding electricity
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the Swedish forest industry’s response to the higher environmental demands regarding the electricity resource from 1990 to 2009. These changes are viewed as part of a wider transition in Sweden’s energy and environmental policy, from industrial modernity to ecological modernization. This paper examines how an electricity-intensive industry has responded to changes involving considerable governmental intervention by means of laws, rules, and public policy instruments to reduce the environmental impact of electricity use and production. The analysis reveals that the Swedish forest industry is currently caught between industrial modernity and ecological modernization due to its divided production processes.

Keyword
forest industry, electricity, ecological modernization, industrial modernity, business associations
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66265 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved
4. Configuring the ‘industrial collective’: a controversyon the use of Swedish forests, 1989–2009
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuring the ‘industrial collective’: a controversyon the use of Swedish forests, 1989–2009
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We introduce a theoretical vocabulary highlighting a neglected area in industrial change theory, the outsider role. Industries cannot be fully examined without considering the influence of concerned groups, i.e. actors concerned with the industrial activity. Our empirical focus is a mature, stable, and highly homogeneous industrial sector, namely, the Swedish forest industry. We identify, analyse, and discuss the development and configuration of various truth claims and standpoints regarding the characteristics and potential uses of Sweden’s forest resources, 1989–2009. We follow the translation of the forest industry from producing solely pulp and paper products to producing electricity, heat, and bio-fuels. We argue that, without the pressure of concerned groups and ‘industrialists in the wild’ on the industry, forest industrial activity would never have been reconfigured.

Keyword
industrial collective; translation; concerned groups; confined industry; forest industry; industrialists in the wild; bio-energy
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66266 (URN)
Available from: 2011-03-10 Created: 2011-03-10 Last updated: 2011-03-10Bibliographically approved

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