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Chemical defence in Norway spruce
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. (Ecological Chemistry)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Norway spruce (Picea abies) responds to stress by biosynthesis of chemical substances, which can deter invading insects or pathogens. Some of these substances are volatile and can be emitted to the surroundings while others are accumulated within the tree. Information about the susceptibility of individual plants to infestation, their volatile emissions and chemical defence is of interest, for example, in selecting plants for tree breeding programs.

The first part of this research focused on volatiles emitted by Norway spruce plants. Collection of headspace volatiles by SPME and subsequent separation and identification with GC-MS was used to investigate Norway spruce plants of different ages and stress conditions as well as trapping semiochemicals like nepetalactone emitted by the spruce shoot aphids. It was even possible to analyse the emission of single needles in vivo and obtain spatial localisation of the stress reaction to methyl jasmonate or spruce spinning mites. Seedlings of different ages showed differences in chemical composition of emitted volatiles, with the pine weevil repellent, (4S)-(-)-limonene, one of the main compounds. Wounded phloem of conventional plants emitted high amounts of monoterpenes while the phloem of mini plants emitted (3Z)-hexenal and (3Z)-hexen-1-ol. In addition, a method to separate and identify the four diastereomers of nepetalactone by GC-MS and characteristic m/z-fragments was accomplished.

The second part of the research deals with the chemical response of Norway spruce roots to inoculation with Heterobasidion annosum. Terpene concentrations increased after inoculation or wounding but the composition was mainly associated with clone identity and not to susceptibility or treatment. In contrast, inoculation with H. annosum induced a treatment-specific alteration of phenol composition. The constitutive phenol composition differed between more and less susceptible clones. The phenols astringin and astringin dimers (piceasides) as well as the terpene α-longipinene may be suitable markers of low susceptibility for P. abies to Heterobasidion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , 63 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2011:13
Keyword [en]
volatiles, terpenes, green leaf volatiles, stilbenes, stress response, nepetalactone
Keyword [la]
Picea abies, Hylobius abietis, Cinara pilicornis, Oligonychus ununguis, Heterobasidion annosum
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31133ISBN: 978-91-7415-877-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-31133DiVA: diva2:402797
Public defence
2011-04-01, K1, Teknikringen 36, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110314Available from: 2011-03-14 Created: 2011-03-09 Last updated: 2011-03-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Semiochemicals related to the aphid Cinara pillicornis (Hartig) and its host, Picea abies. A method to assign diastereomers of nepetalactone
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semiochemicals related to the aphid Cinara pillicornis (Hartig) and its host, Picea abies. A method to assign diastereomers of nepetalactone
2008 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1180, no 1-2, 165-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Volatiles released by seedlings of Norway spruce infested with the aphid Cinara pilicornis were analyzed using SPME–GC–MS. Among the stress-induced compounds released by the host plant, citronellol, cis–trans-nepetalactone and cis–trans-nepetalactol was found. These compounds originated from the aphids and they were assumed to be pheromone components for this aphid species. To determine the relative stereochemistry of the nepetalactone, a diagnostic method was developed. The method was based on multivariate analysis of tabulated relative intensities of mass fragments of the four nepetalactone diastereomers. In the practical method described, a few pairs of fragments in the mass spectra were compared and, in combination with the Kovat's index, were used to unambiguously identify the relative stereochemistry of the nepetalactone.

Keyword
Aphid, Conifer, Pheromone, Nepetalactone, Diastereomer, SPME–GC–MS, Semiochemicals
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7043 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2007.12.020 (DOI)000253060900018 ()2-s2.0-38349035715 (ScopusID)
Note
Uppdaterad till artikel(20110214)Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2011-09-12Bibliographically approved
2. Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: Is plant chemistry the explanation?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: Is plant chemistry the explanation?
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2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 23, no 4, 299-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Miniseedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant alpha-pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this miniseedling effect remains.

Keyword
green leaf volatiles; growth; Hylobius abietis; Picea abies; seedling size; survival; terpenes; weevil damage
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8333 (URN)10.1080/02827580802203560 (DOI)000258590400003 ()2-s2.0-49949114098 (ScopusID)
Note
QC 20100818. Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel (20100818). Tidigare titel: Why are mini seedlings less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: is plant chemistry the answer?Available from: 2008-05-06 Created: 2008-05-06 Last updated: 2011-09-12Bibliographically approved
3. Tracing induced stress sites in conifers by single needle analyses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing induced stress sites in conifers by single needle analyses
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
solid phase micro extraction, (E)-beta-farnesene, stress induced volatiles, Picea abies, Oligonychus ununguis
National Category
Chemical Sciences Organic Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31127 (URN)
Note
QC 20110314Available from: 2011-03-09 Created: 2011-03-09 Last updated: 2011-03-14Bibliographically approved
4. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce clones with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce clones with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31132 (URN)
Note

QC 20110314

Available from: 2011-03-09 Created: 2011-03-09 Last updated: 2016-05-25Bibliographically approved

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