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Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Wild Birds
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presence and spread of clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in reservoirs from natural environments are not well studied compared to the clinical environments. The overall aim of this project was to study the presence of clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a reservoir from natural environments. Wild birds were chosen not only as indicators of the level of antibiotic resistance in surrounding natural bacterial populations, but also since birds can act as vectors of several potential pathogens including enteropathogens and because they by migration have an ability to spread these pathogens across geographical regions.

The studies in this thesis showed that wild birds carry antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae. The levels and spectrum of antibiotic resistance varies between different bird populations and geographical regions. In bird populations without interaction with human activities throughout the year, antibiotic resistance is lacking. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could however probably be dispersed to remote regions by bird migration. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and especially CTX-M types are found in comparable high levels in gull populations considering the recent emergence of these resistance genes in clinical settings. The CTX-M types found in wild birds are the same types that are found in clinical settings and in food producing animals from the same regions. ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from Yellow-legged Gulls are genetically heterogenous, reflecting that these resistance genes are present across the full E. coli genetic diversity. In wild birds CTX-M are found both in E. coli strains with previously known “human signature” as well as “novel” strains. This indicates that these genes are indeed very mobile and rapidly dispersing both through horizontal gene transfer and through successful clones. The findings in this thesis indicate that bird colonies could act as melting pots and reservoirs for new resistance types and that wild birds could act as important indicators of the level of antibiotic resistance dispersal in natural environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2011. , 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 641
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-145480ISBN: 978-91-554-8000-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-145480DiVA: diva2:396256
Public defence
2011-03-25, Hjärnan, Hus 15, Länssjukhuset, Lasarettsvägen, Kalmar, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-02-09 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Antibiotic susceptibility of faecal bacteria in Antarctic penguins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic susceptibility of faecal bacteria in Antarctic penguins
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2008 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 31, no 6, 759-763 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Faecal bacteria from 49 Gentoo penguins on the Antarctic Peninsula were identified by biochemical methods and sequencing, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility using agar dilution. Of the 42 Enterobacteriaceae isolates found, 39 belonged to the genus Edwardsiella. All isolates were susceptible to the 17 antibiotics tested. This implies that antibiotic selection pressure is a prerequisite to a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance, and in the absence of contact with human activities, antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae remains undetectable.

Keyword
Enterobacteriaceae, Antimicrobial resistance, Edwardsiella, Antarctic Peninsula, Pygoscelis papua, Animal
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130384 (URN)10.1007/s00300-008-0430-3 (DOI)000255059200013 ()
Available from: 2010-09-07 Created: 2010-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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6. Antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli of human and avian origin: a comparison of wild-type distributions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli of human and avian origin: a comparison of wild-type distributions
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2009 (English)In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 15, no 5, 461-465 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 97 Escherichia coli isolates from birds, and 100 clinical isolates from blood cultures, were determined by disk diffusion. The wild-type distributions were defined by the normalized resistance interpretation method. It is shown that the avian and clinical inhibition zone diameter distributions of wild-type E. coli are indistinguishable.

Keyword
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Escherichia coli, wild-type distributions
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-113810 (URN)10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02705.x (DOI)000266110500011 ()19260874 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-02-04 Created: 2010-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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